Not essential. Just Nyanga=beautify. Does not hurt much. Gregory does it. One pays 3d. Clifford says he wont have it done to his children. Circumcision continues. Upon return CIRCONCISION {sic}parents give son a chicken.

Oct 2nd - SIMON 's Marriage

Bridegroom's party: Glyn , Kenny , Pippa , Simon 's wife all sleep in Otto 's compound. Glyn , Kenny and Otto went to get Charlie last night unexpectedly.
Bride's party: Boyd , Dyson 's compound. - Jasper and Ezra same compound - Kathleen , Troy s compound - & Pauline , Ezra compound. - None came from Vokude. Simon gave a hoe so that girls would wash but his will be given back. Says that all the girls coming with bride are his sisters so they did not ask for many things nor throw water on him. They did not fix hair as customary, as she is late pregnant. Could have done this but often don't when very obviously pregnant, then they omit certain details. They did bring chair, but not a fancy one. They are washing her and rubbing with red ochre. Girls asked Clint for palm wine. He said that since they were all his sisters he would give none and they said O.K. One pot of corn beer brought from Garth 's compound for group. As I was leaving they gave sticks to girls instead of money. Later Simon will give them money and they will return sticks. Then the girls will return money. I had to leave as smoke was too much for my eyes.

October 2nd. Conception etc.

Nyap says he has had no children since Madam as he has no mother or father. The explanation is that if he had other children while Madam still small there would be no one to look after her. He criticised Harold for having one child after another so that small ones would not have a chance to grow well before new one born. He says soon his wife will conceive again. Also learned that Roland , Warren , Neal , Brian sleep downstairs in house while old woman sleeps upstairs.


If John died someone would be sent to tell his fa. and mo. Nyap Tiker would send Kennedy or Allen to tell his father. His fa. would tell Richard and he would tell all his family from Mang to come. Would try to come all on same day. Upon arrival they would wail. Probably would not bury him until fa. comes. Would take him out of the door. If he died in Ndiel would bury him here, but if ill they would take him to Tiker. They bury the person naked, the graves is L-shaped body is put in tunnel. No medicine put with body. Bury behind compound in which died. Usually buried as soon as most important relative arrives. Usually wait a long time before dividing "cargo" sometimes as long as a year. If you have crops your wife can use them. Wife should remain single at least for one year. If she got married sooner. Groom's family would be angry. Even in case of exchange marriage they wait sometimes before marrying her to a bro. about a year. Drums are beaten with grass. Only at man's death. They are beaten as soon as death comes announcing the coming down of shoas. If Nyap Tiket died. If John at Mang they would send for him. His fa. and mo. would come. He is the only sis's son who belongs to Nyap. John and mo. must wail but fa. need not. Ibrahim would tell them to sit down, not to cry. They might bury him before John came. John would ask what made Nyap die. This they would know by big ant. The juju would come as soon as they heard Nyap died. Ndiel would bring Kwurum and Boor or Tamjur (Frederick 's). Only big one would come from Ndiel, Tscharl, Tigul, Tiker. Jujus might come from Yambap, as his mo. came from there. The jujus dance but not as much as at Mba shoa. They put the jujus in the house where Nyap's body is. The women sit behind the mat fence while jujus dance. Jujus come to mourn the dead.
A close relative like fa. sibling or son, would not dig the grave unless no other man is available but gravedigger should be relative. A woman cant dig a grave. No grass permitted in grave. After digging grave they make Kum medicine for digger. They make it next day. Until then you cant eat anything but roasted plantain. You cant sleep with your wife. You cant drink corn-beer. If your wife is pregnant you must not carry dead man. For Kum medicine a small chicken is cooked. The same say that jujus come the family of the dead will kill a goat and chicken for them called chicken of l. Its the same word as the name for the mission but has no reference.

The cutter can be anybody, nor necessarily of the family. There are people who know how to do it. Dennis 's bro., Walter , now dead, used to do it here. They cut up the entire front from both sides. They lift up the flap and put it over the face. They look at the intestine and if they find holes there, it is what makes him die. If the person was a witch there will be coloured matter on the heart. Also there will be a small bag by the heart. If it opens wide and shapshot {sic} on release, it means person is a witch. They then put flap back, but don't sew it up just bury the person. If he is a witch the surgeon tells all not to cry as he was a witch and killed his own brothers and this finally killed him.


Nyap Tiker says he gave it to a bro. who was of same Memin when his fa. died. It should be given to a bro. whose fa. is still alive.


If sickness troubles a family all congregate. Sit together and take Wulmani (a type of grass). All will tell why they are vexed. Then a man who has Nam medicine will come and drive dead people away. Cause of sickness in a family often due to discord.

Oct 3rd - shoas - TSHAN -{??TSHANG?? }

Nyap Tiket says: 1st people to use shoas were Mbar, followed by Mbamga, Yambap, Shoap (part of Vokude), Vokude and Warwar.
Nyap says that Tshang made world. Does not know whether it was ancestor or not. Nor whether women or men came first. Nor what Tshang looks like nor where he is. Tshang and Nam are both applied to ancestors. Does not know where dead sleep. Nothing about them. Nor where they learn medicine, nor anything else except blacksmithing which came from Kilatin.

Oct 3rd - NYAP TIKER SAYS r. Memin Billa:

Davey , Marcus , Elton , Joshua , Johnson , Ibrahim , Simeon , Kingsley , John and Kennedy are all his MEMIN BILLA. Simeon and Kingsley sleep on farms as it was too far to go.

Oct 4th - NYAP on NGRIPPE marriage

Nyap finally convinced them that he should get the money. £3-18s. The big sister of Charlie , Sue , said how much would have have to pay. Sue had one mo. and one fa. with Rowena . Rowena bore Alison , Ellis , Nyap, then Roland , etc..
Clint brought money here. Nyap said to bring it to Sue . Sue will keep it until Charlie has children then Nyap will take it and divide it among some of his brothers. He can do what he likes with it but he will give some to his bro from French side. Brother at Vokude, Roland , and Neal . The spear he will give to Charlie 's fa. One chicken stays with Nyap and one goes with Charlie 's fa. 1st they brought one chicken and spear. Then 2 chicken and one calabash of palmwine. Because spear was small they had to give 5 sh. He will give 2 of these sh. To Charlie 's fa. They gave 7 sh. To Ezra 's wife. Ezra wife's fa. Nyap's wife had one mo and fa. Nyap suggested they do this otherwise Ezra wife might be vexed.
October 4th Clint says re Simon s marriage
Clint gave £3.10 sh to Ellis Nyaps sibling. Ellis gave it to their big sister. The money is still in Vokude. He doesn't know whether they will give it back. The big sister said that s would not give it to anyone until children born. At first they said he should give £4 as no farm work done. The big sister said no, only £3 18 sh. as £4 too much. When Clint gave £3 18 sh, about two months ago, not all concerned had agreed so he was told to come and take it back, which he did. When Nyaps brother, Ellis , came he told him to bring it back and he would go with him to Vokude. This he did. Ellis asked Clint to bring 3 shillings to give to Charlie s father. Clint gave £3.18 sh which he gave to Ellis . Ellis took it and gave to Charlie s big sister and he told her to keep it until children born. If no trouble sister will give it to Ellis . He gave Ezra s wife eight shillings, but she did not take it.
Clint gave ten shillings. Lonnie (son of Clint s wife living in compound) gave 10 sh. Simon gave £2.10 sh, £2 of which he borrowed from me.
He did not count sticks but girls said that they amounted to £1. When they are able to give the £1 girls will take it. This they will give to Ellis who will probably return it to Clint .They gave hoe for girls to enter compound, but they gave it back immediately. They gave one chicken with spear, one calabash of palm wine. The latter given at Vokude. Simon gave no rings.
According to Clint the father should give more for first wife than later ones, this applied equally well to man acting in loco parentis.
Charlie told us that she would not come unless they gave Ezra s wife money. Clint said that it had been offered so she came. Clint wanted her to come quickly, because should she have borne child in Nyaps compound that would not be good. They would then have to wait until child was able to move about on his own, before she could come to Simon .

October 4th. MEMIN OF CLINT

If he dies Rathbone will divide his cargo as well an another man from Vokude. Bryce of Tscharl would get a part. Clint was born in the compound where the latter sleeps. His mother came from Yambap. Bryce 's mother came from Gembu. They exchanged both Bryce s and his own mother. His father was from Bryce 's family but he doesn't know how. He says when Adrian s father died he got no cargo, so when Adrian dies he will get farms and palm wine trees but no cargo. His mother came from same family as Adrian . What divided them is when Adrian s father died he got no cargo and when his own father died Adrian got no cargo. When his own father died the big man from Tscharl divided the estate.

Oct.4. Ezra s wife re Charlie s marriage

She says that they brought her nine shillings but she refused it said that they should bring it later when Charlie had children. Otherwise she would have to give it back if they separated. She said that the reason they shouldggive her something is that Ezra gave real mother of Charlie a hoe which she kept. when her own daughter marries the husband will have to give Charlie something.
Oct.4 Kathleen Re Charlie s wedding
Small sticks cut to present indebtedness. Each stick was for five shillings.
Jane of Ezra s compound cut sticks. Jane decided how much it was to be. Jane is Charlie 's sister and she is the oldest. She is the one with the illegitimate child. The money was for her sisters. They gave 3 shillings for the chair. Isaac got the money. He was the man who fixed the chair. Isaac sleeps in Dyson s compound. No payment made for hairdo as it was not fixed. They gave one hoe for coming into compound. They gave sticks for sitting down a stick for five shillings. Gave 2 shillings for eating. One hoe for washing. Gave three pans of palm oil, one to chop, one for chicken and one to rub on. They took money only for chair. The rest they gave back. They will eventually return money that they get for sticks.
Oct. 4th. Jane on Simon s marriage.
They cut sticks for £1.10. When they get the £1.10 they will give it to Nyap. Usually they collect all along the road, for walking, carrying across water, etc. As this was close there was no reason for collecting money and some fixed sum was agreed upon. She said that this sum was fixed upon in order to see whether Simon had money.
The bridewealth money was fixed by Jane . She said that it was more than usual as Simon had not worked farms for them. Clint or Simon will give money to Jane who will give it to Ellis . Before taking the money they will ask Charlie whether she wishes to stay with Simon , they will only take it if she says yes. Ellis will be given money by Jane . Ellis can do with it what he wishes.
Oct. 4th A small boy comes to visit Clint .
Name Njur 7 years. Father Carstairs at Tigul. Mother Flora at Tigul. His mother is Clint s daughter. He says that he just wanted to come.

October 4. Sick child.

A woman brought her sick child here. She is Rolf 's paternal half sister. Her husband is from Mverrup and this is where she lives. Husband came too. He has been explaining at length about illness to Nyap who is not his brother. Gregory made medicine for her. Oct. 4th. or past 3 weeks Ter (Termites or flying ants) have been major part of diet. They appear from about middle of September to mid November. When rain stops and soil hardens they don't come out again. Some are dried and later cooked and eaten as soup with Fufu. Only men know how to build Ter houses. One can build a Ter house any place where there is no remnant of old Ter house as long as it is not someone's farm. Today many men out building Ter houses, among others Archibald , Gregory , Frederick . Are eaten both raw and cooked by all.
October 10. Nyaps sister's child dies
About 4:00 P.M. Rolf comes to tell me that the above has occurred. At Nyaps compound found Brett digging grave. Later Ezra and Caspar helped him. It was dug in the banana grove behind the house. Cadogan supervised the digging. Dug in N.S. orientation. A tunnel dug in which child would be laid. Carefully cleaned of grass and leaves. After digging a piece of elephant grass put across opening. Then they went under medicine house where corpse was lying on a plantain leaf. Corpse was brushed over with water by medicine leaves by the father. It was touched on the forehead with red ochre. The child carried to the side of the grave on a plantain leaf. All medicines and strings cut off there. Corpse was stark naked. Caspar took him and placed in tunnel of grave. He stood in the grave and patted down all of the earth that Ezra shovelled in. Corpses head in North direction. Knees doubled up and head laid on the side. Hands under head. After grave filled in, the bunch of grass that new mothers carry was brought, unravelled and spread over grave by Caspar . Ezra cut the plantain stems, split them and put them over the grave. Later weeds pulled over the grave as if to hide it. Before putting plantain stems over grave, the father had broken a small calabash, the type used to carry seeds was broken on the grave and pieces left on the grave.
All then returned to compound. Ezra washed the father's hands, feet and face with water. Dyson made a long speech and then left. People by the grave side were Rolf , Nyap, Nathan Cadogan , those who dug grave and then the father. In the compound were Frederick ,Rodney , Dyson and many others including many women. Much wailing by mothers and other women. Father did not weep. A hoe dismantled and put at the side of the house.
Adrian appeared at the end of the ceremony, having been on the farm. Archibald never came. Dyson s speech was to tell people not to cry any more. He said that when Theobald died, all cried too much and that this caused trouble. He said that the ancestors took the child. All over in 1 1/2 hours.

Discussion of Meek's articles with John and others. Sept. 1st.

page 532 line 2. Pop. figures wrong.
" " " 17-pigeon peas (wuli) are grown on the mountain. Afterwards they were harvested, people may grow cassava, groundnuts and yams on the same spot. They do this as working fields for Wulis softens the ground in preparation for future planting. They don't know that this plant fertilises the soil.
Pg 532 line 22- Except where they have been planted on the hill tops: i.e. in village itself.
pg. 532 line 22. Hard rainy season from August 15th to Nov. 15th.
Pg 533. John says Mambila is a Fulani word.
Pg 533. John says Nor not used for non-Mambila. Does not know word Jabu.
Pg 534. Note. J says Kabri use Nu for sun and Nama or Tschang for God.
Pg.534. Tagbo, Lagubu or Tongbo used for Gembu people.
Pg 534. Mambila towns of French side according to John . Sarki Baka, Ta, Mber, Jang, Que, Libo Mayo Dala, Koti, Idansere. John doesn't know any of the names listed by Meek. He knows none of the towns listed in Bamenda. He says Kamkam and Magu are Mambila towns.
535. Kila means blacksmith in Fulani talk. John says Bute is Banyo language. Wawa he recognises as the name of a group, but doesn't know where they live. Blacksmiths in Titon speak special language. At Kabri and other places they don't, they just speak Mambila. Kuna blacksmiths have their own language, also a town called Gono, a place where they make hoes and Yung belles. Gono is near Titon in the direction of Maya Daga.
John has never heard it said that spears are recent innovation. Never heard of cutting meat with guinea-corn stalks. Says that he thinks at Gono and Titon blacksmiths sons all become blacksmiths. Doesnt know about their endogamy, but has heard that blacksmiths daughters would only marry for money not exchange.

Oct. 12. Medicine for Clifford , Wife and Andrei .

I came in in the middle. Frederick , Gregory , Archibald , Adrian , Andrei , Clifford , Ezra , Caspar , Clint were there. Andrei was confessing that he stolen things including women. This he said was what made him sick. The Shoa had caught him. He confessed at length. Finally Adrian took chicken feathers, burned it and spat on Andrei . Later this done by Archibald also. Then there was talk by Clifford explaining why he was vexed with his wife, not the one from Kabri. She later spoke up and said why she was angry with Clifford . Then Frederick s wife spoke at length. Clifford meanwhile had given the wife a shilling.
October 16th. Andrei , Clifford Medicine.
Andrei confessed all otherwise shoas would continue to make him sick. A long time ago, they rang the bell saying that a man shouldn't try his brothers wife and shouldn't steal things in Warwar. Andrei gave the wife, not the one from Kabri, love medicine so that would give it to Clifford and he would love her and not like Kabri one. Bell had been wrung so that anyone doing this would be sick. Andrei asked her for a dash for doing this, later went into her house and slept with her. He also stole, Adrian 's, Caspar 's, Ezra 's. Frederick 's and Griffith 's palm wine. Stole a lot of fire wood. Juju made him sick. He told all this to big people. They said that they would not take him to court, and that he does not have to pay for what he stole. He will give big people one chicken to eat. Big people not vexed, they think that he has been punished enough by illness. Is at this moment in Vokude making medicine. Vokude man who has Ngambe (big ant) told him to confess to give chicken and he would recover. The chicken feathers that were burned represented chicken that he will give.
Oct.16. Clifford and Wife.
Clifford said that his wife has lied to him and was angry at her. She denied that Andrei had given her love medicine. Clifford said that he would give sasswood to two chickens to see who was right, but would do it in a far place as Andrei or wife might be a witch they could interfere in oracle. Andrei could not marry Clifford s wife if he stayed here, but could if he went to live at Mverrup, Yambap, etc.
October 18. Residence vs. Kinship
Clifford was angry at Andrei as he had tried to take one of his wives. As he was living in Ndiel with Clifford medicine had to be made to settle palaver. If he had been living elsewhere medicine would not have to be made. Since witchcraft only occurs between peoples who are living together. The sanction inherent between persons living close together is thus stronger than otherwise.
October 19. Exchange marriage
At any time and for any reason exchange could be broken. In case of breaking marriage children belong to the mother. John says if one wife has many more children than the other, her brother might call her back.

Oct.19. MEMIN John on,

There is no way of asking with one question to which Memin one belongs. One must ask whether mother married with bridewealth or exchange. Another question then follows to which Memin does owning parent belong.

Oct 19th. Theft.

Bobby is the man who sold me firewood he had stolen from V. Zielinski . He had already once been driven out of Warwar for theft. V. Zielinski is angry and says that he will ask for one shilling. This fellow has also been run out of Mverrup for stealing. On Oct. 22 learned that V. Zielinski had confronted the thief. The latter admitted the theft. Zielinski said that he forgave him, but not to do it again. Evidently Zielinski had calmed down after seeing me.

Oct. 20. Kati at Ndiel

Had expected things to start early. Heavy rains early evening. About 12 A.M. went to dance place in Ndiel. About ten people there all males. About 12:30 Clint came with about 25 people including women. That is to say they did not accompany him, but came at about the same time.
I left at 4:30. No outsiders had come. About 80 people from Ndiel there. Oldest was Archibald 's wife, youngest Madam. Most young married people there as well as almost all single people. Most dancing done in two circles, male and female. Men on outside women on inside. After I left Tscharl and Tiket people came. Later Tigul. This was in wrong order as Tigul should be there first. The Ndiel people are angry that Tigul did not come earlier.

Oct. 22. Medicines

Went to Rodney s compound, he was making medicine for Elias 's fathers wife. She is Rodney s brothers daughter, the big ant told her to come here. The medicine being made is Nam. Chicken cooked. Rodney gave the wife a bite of chicken and fufu, three times. Then gave her a sandwich of fufu and chicken. Waved fufu and chicken over the head of the woman, his wife and some of the children of the compound, but none of the men. While waving the food, he said that as the medicine had been made, her chest should not hurt her any longer, repeated three times. After about fifteen minutes woman came out of house, after Rodney had sprinkled water on her head. Then he touches her forehead, breast, etc. with banana leaves. He does this for all who ate chicken except his own wife. She is tending a child. All present laugh saying that she wanted to eat the chicken but not have the medicine made.

Oct. 22. Cadogan s compound.

Nyaps wife and Langley s sister were beating guinea-corn for Cadogan , This was done to help not for money.

October 22nd. Childrens care Witchcraft.

Ian says at Christian meeting that children are purposely kept dirty so that people seeing them will say that they are no good and wont bewitch them. It is bad to tell a mother that her children are fine, they prefer that people pay no attention to them, since they fear that people will be jealous.
October 23. Kul medicine.
Gregory was making this for Nora from Dyson s compound. Gregory says that he wont get paid for it as Lawrie who is Nora 's husband is a member of his family. If husband were not related he would be paid. This medicine is to stop stomach trouble. Nora provided the chicken. A chicken is cooked as usual. Gregory took leaves that were cooked with chicken touched forehead and breasts of Nora with them and said that illness would go away and not trouble her anymore. Then leaves are stamped upon left big toe. This is to drive bad things away. Later he took a large seed which rattles and shook it on her belly, saying that stomach trouble will go. Then Gregory did it to all who were around who had had the medicine made previously or wanted it made. All people who had had medicine made and Nyena Nyu shared:

Oct. 23. Nyena Nyu.

These can eat chickens of any medicine, even if they have not had medicine made for them.

Oct 23. Kul Medicine.

Gregory 's father showed him how to make it. His seed rattle was the one used by his father. The medicine made for Nora was made at Adrian 's compound, she had come to have him make it, but as he had to leave, they called Gregory to make it.

October 24. Houses.

Two main types. One has a temporary frame of sticks. Mud placed between the sticks frame, once it has hardened frame taken away. Sticks placed about one foot apart. The second type has many more sticks in the frame, which are tied together with fibre. Mud is then put in chinks. With the first type the roof is not put on until mud has dried. In the second type the roof is put on at once. The frame for the roof of both types is made of bamboo, and thatched with elephant grass, stalks of that grass tied to frame with fibre.

October 24th. Nya Medicine. Gregory .

He is the first to eat of new guinea-corn, maize, cocoyams in Ndiel, and only for Ndiel. Is the only one to have this medicine in Warwar. If Nya man drinks people must keep quiet, if they don't medicine will make them sick. Is only used as medicine if the medicine itself makes people sick. Some special grass used by Nya medicine man, which is put near palm wine trees. If an unsuspecting person goes too near the tree or climbs it, medicine will catch him. They call him a native chief. It also gives him special power to stop people from fighting. He uses a special grass for this. When people see elephant grass in his hand they must stop fighting. He claims that there are restrictions on his own behaviour because of his having medicine. His father gave him the medicine. Does not know why he gave it to him and not other sons. As he has no male children he doesn't know to whom he will give it. If he were to die without passing it on, the family would come together to decide who should get it. The candidate would be sent to Vokude to learn it from man there. The man having it in Vokude is not a brother of theirs.
It has nothing to do with making crops grow. The reason that he must be the first to eat of the new crop is so that the stocks will last and crop will not disappear too rapidly. People don't bring him first fruits, he eats from his own crop, then others can eat. Nya medicine can be made either in bush or in compound. He sleeps far from others because he wants to and not because of medicine. He cannot give to medicine to just anybody. He was able to give it to Samuel Zielinski because Tom had had it. One must have an ancestor who had it, before it can be given to one.

Oct. 25. Tschuk medicine.

Tschuk medicine men may put in on plantain trees. Then only people having that medicine or their Nyena Nyu's can eat the plantains. Others cannot even take leaves from the trees.

Oct. 26. Market. Celebration in Mang. and Kabri

Mang people celebrate Mbamga, Vokude, Yambap and Ndarrup market days. Don't do major farm work on these days.
Kabri people celebrate only Mbamga and Kabri Market days. They only take two holidays, that is two days for resting.

Oct. 26. Memin of Rodney .

Adrian , Njur, Gregory , Harold , Ezra , Caspar , Finlay , Dyson , Cadogan , Nathan , Rolf , Archibald , Robin .
Inheritance of Rodney . If he dies Adrian would divide his cargo. Archibald would get only tobacco, Cadogan also will get tobacco. Harold , Caspar , Finlay , Ezra , Gregory , Njur, Adrian and his children would get his cargo. Dyson and Robin would get only tobacco.
Oct. 26. John insists no difference in afterworld, whether one is good or bad. No penalty in afterworld.

Oct.26. Aidan s marriage

His wife brought 8 chicken heads to her sisters, showing that they had given her eight fowls to eat. Robin kept £1 and returned £2. Brides sisters kept £1 4sh. The brides sisters sent nothing back, Aidan says that they haven't yet decided on what the final amount of bridewealth should be, or at least they have not told him.

October 27. Pottery.

This morning in Brett s compound, the latters' wife came in with clay. She beat it with a big stick until it was more cohesive. Brett then began to make pots. They take a big hunk of clay and then mold out form with hands. Then he scrapes outside and inside with a pebble to smooth surface. If clay needs to be added it is rolled into strips and added on top. Bottom of pot left as a hole. Leave it till edges dry and then put in bottom.

Oct. 27. Disobeying Elders.

Sean and Neal were going towards the drums at Brett s compound. Lance told them not to beat them as they would disturb him. They paid absolutely no attention and started beating drums. He said to stop and again they heeded him not. He was angry but said no more. They continued beating the drums.
(Address of George A Dunger)
North American Baptist Seminary
Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

October 29. Big stone at Tiker dance floor.

If big stone falls women alone can pick it up. Big stone has something to do the Lobal medicine. Only women with this medicine can put it up. There is also a big stone behind the fence which no one is allowed to move about. All this told me by John .

Oct. 29 Tschuk medicine.

Cecil made Tschuk for Tiker.
Oct. 29 Myth of heaven.
Near Kabri a long time ago people climbed a mountain and then some tall trees on that mountain and reached the sky. There they bought some guinea-corn very cheaply and sold on earth at a very dear price as it was period of famine. The Mambila already knew how to grow guinea-corn at that time. Some people came and cut down the trees so that there are some people still left in the heavens who could not climb down, nor can anyone now go up.
The mountains name is Gong, some people call it Jing. If you are on the mountain you cannot use its name or rain will come and wet you.
October 29.
Talked to Clifford and Graeme about snake living in tree on Ndiel dance ground. They said that it was benevolent snake and did not hurt people. Some people according to them believe that the dead live behind the fence.
Clifford was vexed with Frederick and Obidiah as Obidiah said that only Ndiel would carry for D.O. Clifford said that they already carried for Goodman and me and that this should be enough.
October 30. Nya Medicine by S. Zielinski .
Gregory 's father gave to Kieron and Gregory have to Tom and at the latters' death gave to S. Zielinski . S. Zielinski had had back pains. Gregory gave him some medicine to cure them and they then decided that he should have all of the medicine. Now they are thinking of giving Nya medicine to Ibrahim .

Nov. 1st Gembu.

Lamidos council from Mambila District, that is to say members from this area are Chief of Gubi (Mambila)
Fulani chief of Mayo Daga
Darius .
Nov. 1st. Council Meeting.
Many Mambila chiefs attend, but Darius say that they are always late. He explained that the council might decide that there should be no farming on the Mambila plateau, if chief were not there. They must come on time to defend their interests. The Council was explained the procedure to follow in case of farmer grazier dispute.
The farmer goes to the chief of the town, the grazier goes to Arnardo (Fulani chief). Then the farmer and chief and grazier and Arnardo get together. The Veterinary Mallam says the Arnardo's do not try and really settle disputes.
Some Fulani chiefs said that Mambilas refused to build fences when told to do so by the ordinary Fulani. D.O. asked who had given Fulani right to give such commands. Fulani said that Darius had told them that they had this right. Darius denied having said so D.O. said that he did not want Fulani to tell Mambila what to do, but rather wanted them to discuss, Arnardo and Mambila chief on equal footing, and then settle disputes. Mambila said that cows should not be allowed near where crops are growing.
(About 11:00 A.M. 80 people at meeting.)
Some Fulani say that they have offered Mambila money to build fences, but the latter have refused. One Fulani said that he had offered £2 and been refused.
Mambila chief of Gembu said as water was spoiling crops the Mambila now wished to start planting crops on hill. Darius said to him to arrange it with neighbouring Fulani. Veterinary Mallam (a Fulani) said that Fulani should not sell cow meat of cow that was sick or had died on its own. The Fulani appeared to agree, but were not happy and further discussion with them showed that they would continue in the future as in the past. Vet. Mallam explained that selling such meat spread diseases among people as well as among cows.
Most of discussion was concerning Fulani matters, their respective areas controls etc.

Tatschop= carved figures of man and woman put in guinea-corn houses. Used in Mbamga but not Warwar, though Nyap of Tiker had heard of them. He doesn't know why they dont use them here in Warwar.

Nov.2nd Council Meeting.

Darius said that most important subject of discussion was motor road. He gave it big build up, pointing out that price of salt was 13sh in Ndu and 35 sh in Gembu and other high prices due to costs of carrying. He said that if you want to eat guinea-corn, you don't just wish it there, it requires hard work, the same applies to the road. He explained that labourers would not get paid but would be given meat and other things. Chief of Ngubin asked whether Fulani would work. 4 members of the Northern Elements Progressive Union are propagandizing against road. Darius spoke against them, and some of his stooges said that they should be pitched out. Darius sent to Don Dokas to go and get them and see that they were here tomorrow. If some Mambila dont want to work, Don Doka will go and get them, bring them to Gembu and imprison them, this was policy put forward by Fulani. Some of Mambila chiefs said if they were made to work too much they would go to French side. Chief of Kabri and Dowduwao talked against forced labour.

Nov. 3rd. Johnson 's Illness

Johnson today gave a goat to all of the big people. His father had had a dispute with the now deceased Xavier . He had taken some of Xavier 's corn, as he had said that Xavier had planted on his own fields. This done in spite of the fact that the custom is that one should never take another's crops even if planted on ones own farms. Johnson thought that this act was making him ill, so he gave goat to all of the big people of Warwar as settlement. One leg went to Tiker, one to Ndiel, one fore leg to Tscharl and to Tigul. This shows that ones responsibility is not to ones hamlet alone, but to whole village.
Nov. 3rd. Deverell making medicine for Johnson .
Deverell said that he made Mavullap for Johnson as he had held a child of his daughters in his arms. Evidently the mothers father often does this, but it may make his arms and legs sore in which case the medicine has to be made. The son in law would give the chicken to his father in law and the latter would have the medicine made. The taboo applies equally to the mother of the mother, and in some cases paternal grandparents have to have the medicine made. The Mavallup man hands the child to both grandparents with some special grass and only then will illness stop. Also after this the child can be handled with impunity.
Nov. 4. Johnson s Illness
Today he is worse. We brought him palm wine, but he didnt drink it. Others drank it. He could hardly talk, coughed and seemed very weak.
Nov. 4. Nyap Tiker and Tschuk.
Nyap has three stones near the door of his compound. His father placed them there. He says that they are called Kell. Individual stones have no names. Have nothing to do with deceased ancestors as far as he knows. They may have but he knows nothing about it if they do.

Nov. 4. Blacksmithing.

Saw Ibrahim beating out a chisel. Heated it very hot then plunged it into cold water. This he said made it stronger. Nyap (Tiket) put a special grass in the fire to make it burn hotter.

Nov. 4th Elton s wife Palaver.

Elton s wifes case finished and Elton got neither children nor bridewealth returned. The people say that now things are changing and children should belong to the father if wife runs away. They said that D.O. made this change. They belive that D.O. changed the law so that children should belong to their father. Mallam Taffi was court clerk at the time. Actually I think that it is Mallam Taffi who himself made the change.

Nov 4th. Denzil s loom.

65 feet. long. The place where he works is roughly in the centre, 28 feet from one end and 37 feet from the other. The end of the string is tied on to a stick which is tied on to two poles standing upright in the ground. The thread is kept divided by a piece of wood. Further technical details given in the notes.
Denzil does not know where or how Mambila learned to weave. Rodney taught him and Adrian taught Rodney . When whole cloth woven they will cut it into strips. Women know neither how to weave or to spin.

Nov 4. Mallam Taffis wife.

She came from Mbarr to Ron 's compound about a month ago. 12 days ago she delivered a son. A previous daughter came with her.
Will Abaza 's daughter died. She lived on the farms in Tiket.

Nov. 4. Tang.

Brett brought me a Tang. They are used to blow during Mboashoa and if a big man dies. They blow them when shoas are dancing. Women can not only see them being blown, but also blow them. Oil or butter is put in them before blowing so that they will sound nice.

Nov. 4. Fishing

Women fish with basket called "Gar". Men don't know how to use them. They hold the basket between their legs and with their hands frighten fish in basket. Only men fish with hook and line. Worms placed on hook. Termites or meat can also be placed on hook. Fish traps. In narrow place on Streams. Sticks are driven into ground. Woven grass between sticks forms traps. They are caught as cant swim back against current. Men set these traps. anyone can put a trap where he wishes.
Yum is fish poison. The tree looks like Tin. Women get the leaves. Smash and grind them. Throw them into water. Fish come to the surface. Women come and collect them in baskets. Pregnant women must take elephant grass stalks and make small cut in their belly before going to fish or they wont get any.

Nov.4. Menstruating Women by John and Irving .

Men can eat food cooked by menstruating women, but cannot have intercourse. Nabvul Todjoa= menstruating woman. Menstruating woman can neither sow nor cover guinea-corn seeds while planting. She can drink corn beer. She can plant corn. At Mang they are not allowed to come through compound gate or they will loose much blood, nor can she go through special entrance made for Jujus. Some males with special medicines cannot eat food prepared by menstruating women. If any taboos on Menstruating women, the penalty is that they will bleed much.

Nov.5. Pottery.

A person who has touched eggs cannot touch a pot that is being made or the pot will break in the fire. Eggs should not be brought near where pots being made. During last ten days many pots made. Brett and wife, Frederick s wife, Archibald s wife and in Adrian s compound they are being made. Any person can make them if they know how. Abraham and other small children in Rodney s compound were making small ones for play, but meanwhile learning how to do it.
Nov 5. Jujus
Roland said that he could sell me a juju with medicine if he gave all of the big people a goat, but he is afraid to do so, saying that then witches would attack him and place blame on shoa.
Nov. 6. Elias 's mother did not go through Shoa entrance on main path, as she said that she had something in her basket to sell, and if she did, then she would not find a buyer.
Arrived in Rodney s compound. There we found the Yung Bell and two small snakes of iron called Boo Nu set up. Boo Nu is said to represent lightning. Chicken feathers and a knife were lying near the bell. Medicine was being made for Rodney s sister, who is the wife of Elias 's father. Medicine called Giling. He makes the medicine so that if someone tries to bewitch her he will die. Alasdair from Vokude taught him the medicine, the latter married Rodney 's sister. He, Rodney , gave him £1. hoe, spear and chicken as well as an old hoe for the medicine. This is not the same bell as used for swearing or detecting thieves. The symbols of lightning are used to make lightning hit the witch. He does not know who is bewitching his patient but is certain that lightning will kill whoever it is.
Nov.6. Elias 's fathers wife still in Rodney s compound.
Nov.6. Johnson 's Illness.
When we arrived Johnson was lying under the grain store. Mats had been put around it so that it was completely enclosed. His wife, sister and other women went in. Nyap followed. Nyap asked Johnson what to do with some palm wine trees, and Johnson said to give them back to the relatives of some deceased big man who had asked him to take care of them, that is the trees. Nyap asked Johnson whether there was any hidden property and Johnson said that he would not talk as there were too many people about, he would tell him later when they were alone. Johnson speaks so unclearly that only Nyap understands him. Johnson was angry at one of this "sisters" because she had run off with a young man who had not given a cock and a spear. Nyap said that he should not be angry as girl could not help it. Nyap told him to bless the sister, which he did by saying Kissum, then he also said it for her husband. Later Johnson told Nyap to say, that if their sisters married to take country things, such as hoes, fowls etc. but not much money. He said that money led to trouble if the girl wanted to divorce. Johnson said never to take more than £3 or £4.
The girl that Johnson Exchanged (the daughter of his full sister) came to see Johnson . Cecil went in to see him. Renton too came. Johnson shows them that is Renton and Cecil the whistles and tells them of medicine for Tu and Gir.

Nove. 7. Johnson illness.

On way to Tiket we met Elton who said Johnson was suffering much. He was going back to his compound to get his children. He had married a daughter of Johnson .
Johnson had said to bring all of the family to him. When we arrived there were many people there, including all of the residents of Elton and Nyap (t) compound, Johnson 's real sister Harry (Tscharl) Deverell , Terry 's father. Ibrahim said that things were hard as they had no money to buy corn beer, and that Johnson was making too much trouble and they didnt even have enough time to cook food. Either he should hurry up and die or get well.
Harry made medicine for Johnson . He touched leaf on forehead chest and temples of Kul. Then gave him a bit of beer to drink. This medicine to stop pains in the chest.
Cahill , Cecil , Renton and Henry come. Harry says that they should call Roger to make XXXia medicine.
Jack Kennedy 's wife had corn beer to sell. She dashed the people in Johnson s compound a jug. Elton had his daughter bring them a pot. I bought a pot from Kennedy 's wife. Cecil said that women should come out from under the grain store as Johnson might want to talk about secret things and he could not if women were there. Some women agreed and left, but not all. Johnson says that he want Frederick to come and make medicine for him. Cecil and Cahill are angry because so many people are sitting in compound. He say that they should go to Nyap (T) compound, saying that a lot of people should come only if he dies.
After my lunch, all big people from Tiker there. Also Adrian , Harold . Harold asked Johnson to confess all of his evil deeds especially those towards S. Zielinski . They think that the bell is making him ill because he took the chieftainship away from S. Zielinski and gave it to Obidiah . Harold 's wife (Johnson s daughter) came in the morning and stayed all day. Many people ask him to confess all of his sins so that he will get well. Harold is only one of many. No one form Tscharl here, only Bartholomew from Tigul.
Johnson confesses to having driven S. Zielinski from the compound but that is all. The big people say that he should talk about taking the chieftaincy away, but he doesn't. Cahill , Bartholomew and Elton press him, but he refuses to admit guilt.
Some years ago medicine made to insure that anyone sending another away would be made ill and this they believe has made Johnson ill. Frederick was supposed to come make medicine, but he is ill and cant come. Johnson held by others in sitting position while talking, all women had left.

Aidan s Affinal Relationship (November 8)

Aidan s wife's father brought a pot of corn beer at Nathan s compound and brought it to Aidan as his maternal half sibling died. The death occurred about a month ago.

Nov 8. Johnson Illness.

When we arrived Elton was telling why he was vexed with Johnson . He angry because Johnson tried to send Samuel Z. away, and because he took the fence medicine away from him. Earlier Johnson had given it to him. To fix things up fence medicine (Nam) is to be made for Johnson and Elton . All of these confessions are done under the grain store, but are done with such a loud voice that those outside can hear all. Elton says that Johnson stopped his sisters living in other towns from visiting him, by saying that they accused his wife of bewitching them. One of the sisters came out to the front and said in a loud voice that Elton talked too much. Nyap (T) was very angry at this saying that Elton was just saying what he wanted to say and telling all bad things and that this was all to the good. Elton then made Nam medicine. Johnson s wife and sisters ate outside of the house, which is rather unusual, but not prohibited. No comments made by males in the audience. Today sisters of Johnson are much gayer as he appears to be getting better. About 11:00 A.M. Cahill came. Elias 's fathers wife came with Rodney 's wife. Elias 's fathers wife is Johnson s sister. Rodney 's mother's mother was from Johnson 's man, therefore Johnson is Rodney 's brother. Adrian and Gregory not Johnson s brothers.
Nyap (T) suddenly became very angry and started shouting at all of the women who were sitting around, saying that they were not helping at all and should go away and do some work. Cahill , Cecil and other men likewise got excited and saying that women should go and work. Most of them were Johnson 's sisters. They ignored the diatribe and soon the excitement died down and no more was said. After awhile some but not all went away. There were two reasons for the outburst. The first the men thought that Johnson might want to talk about secret things such as medicines of jujus. Secondly there is a fear of witchcraft. The men feel that the women are better at this than men and fear them. Whenever anyone is ill they fear the presence of witches, as witches said to often attack sick man.
So far there has been a tremendous interrogation of Johnson . Two categories of questions were asked, one had he any hidden property and about the medicines he owns, whether they have all been passed on. Secondly had any unconfessed sins which were causing his illness. The latter questions seem to be asked by everyone. Both types of questions were asked both by members of his family and others. They have been badgering him about his sins for the last three days. During the early part of his illness too, the big men tried to keep women away. When I left, Cahill , Cecil , Renton and a very distant brother were talking of the past with Johnson . One subject that Johnson discussed at length was his attempts to marry Charles 's mother. He mentioned all of the gifts that he gave her. This is not important as his heirs have no claim on the gifts. He merely seems to be enjoying reminiscing. Today he is much stronger. Is able to sit by himself. Was washed by some of his brothers including Herbert and Elton . Was very annoyed when they sat him in the sun naked. He insisted that they bring him his blanket. He feared that the women would see him naked.

Nov 8. Pottery making.

Seen at Frederick 's compound, Aylmer filling in the bottom of a big pot. He scrapes up the side until a bulbous projection stands out at the bottom. The projection then squeezed off by hand leaving a rough bit that must then be scraped off. The early as well as final smoothing is done by a stick with a flat edge, which is occasionally dipped in water. The bottom can only be filled in when the mouth has hardened enough to stand the weight of the pot as while working it rests on the mouth. This usually takes a half a day to dry to required hardness. It is left for this drying in the sun. The potter walks around the pot as no wheel known. Pots can be made any time even after the death of a big man.

Nov 9th. Johnson

John says that he heard that they had asked big ant about Johnson , but doesn't know who asked. Big ant said that he vexed for Samuel and Samuel vexed for him. Dead people are angry about this. Does not know whose big and used, but thinks it was done on the 7th. Reason that Elton made Nam medicine is that big ant said John and Elton vexed at each other
Nov. 9th Johnson and Kati.
Kati was supposed to be danced at Tiker, but as Johnson was sick the big people did not want it done there. They asked Johnson whether it could be danced at Tscharl instead and he said yes. The big people at Tscharl said that if dance were held there it would be as if they did not like Johnson . So not held there. The corn beer that had been made for Kati in Tiket was drunk, but no loud drumming as they said it would disturb Johnson , and stop him from sleeping.
Nov 11th Funeral feast via John
According to John big feasts are held about a month after a person dies, in most towns. This is not the case at Warwar. He has gone to Mang where a dinner is being held for his deceased sister. All kin are supposed to come. Theresa wont go as she is angry with John . This annoys John a great deal. He says that his family will be angry over this. He plans to retaliate the next time one of her kin dies. All kin are expected to come including affines and make contribution. John has bought two chickens and will try and get palm wine.
At Warwar don't have this feast. When a person ill here, all relatives come, at Mang when a person ill not all relatives come around. One or two persons take care of the sick person and others not allowed to see him.
Nov.11th. Dance held at mission so that Goodmans could tape and film. First and only time saw people dancing without beer. Mainly all Christians. Were dashed a bag of salt which Obidiah divided. He was oldest man present, since assembly of almost 100 were mainly young boys and girls, a few older women but very few.

Nov.12th. Right toe.

On way to Nyap of Ndiels compound met Cadogan who said that he had just stubbed his right toe and therefore expected me to give him something. This is third time since my arrival that I have heard such statements.

Nov.12. Baptisms

I hear that 13 Christians are to be baptised in Warwar at the end of the month and 33 in Dorofi.
Nov 12. John Marriage.
Theresa was pregnant twice before marrying John . Both times it was with a man from Kabri. John was angry with the man as he was already working farm for Theresa 's family and this man should not be sleeping with her. Both times a miscarriage occurred.

Nov.12. Rape.

If a girl is found in the bush and rape is attempted she should cry out if assailant caught by her kin or neighbours he would be beaten. If he succeeded in peace she would probably be ashamed to recount her experience. If she did tell her family might be angry, but could do nothing, no steps would be taken to punish the rapist. This explains why girls usually go about in groups, even on very short walks. The excuse given by unmarried girls is that they were taken by force. This is often just a cover used to protect themselves. They must confess who is the father.
Nov.12. Rathbone on market and and kinship of Tscharl people.
Rathbone said that he would wait until we went to see Roland before he would discuss kinship as he claims not to know very well. At first he said all people of Tscharl were of one MEMIN. Then after a time he said some were strangers and would not inherit cargo. Did not want to give genealogies until Roland was present. This is again an example of them visualizing a hamlet as one unit and the resentment felt when I try and differentiate between those who are full members and those who are not. They do not like to differentiate between the two even among themselves. At first I thought that they were afraid to give genealogies to me, but am now almost certain that it is merely dislike of differentiating between members of the unit that they don't like.

Nov.12. Corn

Nyaps wife came by with a small basket full of corn that she had bought for two shillings. It contained 9 1/2 tassas. This according to Nyap is first that they have bought this year. He still has some in his stores but doesn't want to use it all up. He says that he may continue to buy if market is good and if not will use his own. Says that his crop was not as good as he had hoped and therefore did not have a very large supply.

Nov. 12.Shoa Tulli

Shoa Tulli= Juju of Night
Only people with a special kind of medicine can see them. Gwimin (John 's father brother has it). Many years ago John asked him about it, and Gwimin was vexed saying not to ask him foolish questions. Johnson has it also. Only a very people know anymore about it than its mere existence.
Nov 12. Snake Living at Dance Place.
Its name is Tschul. It sleeps near the fenced off area. Adrian says that it is harmless. If someone sees it they give it food palm oil and corn flour. No one would harm him. Adrian says the snake is for Jir medicine.

Nov 12. Johnson Died.

Graeme came to the house very early to tell me. John said that Nyap (Ndiel) had heard them beat the drum, but he hadn't. We rushed up and found about 75 men sitting in the compound around three fires. People mainly from Tiket, a few from Tscharl and Ndiel as well as those who had come from afar. Big men all under storehouse with the corpse. No wailing going on. Women who come, hide their eyes and rush into the house, that is the living house. Harold , Adrian and Edmund are going to make Tu medicine. Ibrahim and Ray are going to make Jir medicine. Man, woman and small drum are all in compound and lying on their side. About five Jujus are beneath storehouse. Tscimbui a juju made of a broken calabash are there. Edmund to make Tu medicine in the future. Ibrahim says that Johnson took Jir medicine away from him and therefore he does not want to make it now. Renton and Nyap (t) tell them to hurry up and make the medicine, Cahill adds his two cents worth. They want medicine made before sun comes up. Rodney , Gregory , Dyson , Clint , Harold are people from Ndiel. Apparently Johnson was vexed with S. Zielinski , Elton was angry at Johnson for this so Johnson took away his Jir medicine. He did the same for Marcus and Ibrahim because they tried to support Samuel . Renton says that medicine will be given back to them, Nyap agrees. They will not perform an autopsy on Johnson as he had big medicines. Ibrahim says that if they make medicine he wont come. He is very excited. He says as Johnson told them to go they, that is Marcus , Elton and Ibrahim will have nothing to do with the medicine.
A small three tube bamboo flute is brought by small boy. One bamboo taken off and people told not to look. Adrian and Harold do something with it. Nyap (T) is very angry jumps around slapping his legs telling all to be quiet while medicine being made. No one pays much attention. They double the covering over the entrance of grain store house so no one can see in. A long stick planted in roof of store house tied to it on a long string is a small pullet. He is left tied with one leg while still alive. Will be left there until he dies. This is because Johnson had Bel medicine. Oliver is the man who makes it, Oliver is from farms at Tiker.
Mvir, a small whistle Juju and Tschimbir are blown by Oliver and Phineas (lives in YXXXgs compound) This means that Jujus are crying for Johnson . A lot of pieces of old metal are taken from medicine house and are rattled. These are Kwurum, rattled by Elton . Medicine being made in store house but they did not want me to go.
If Jir medicine not made at death of man having it, when made behind fence it will not work. If someone cries before medicine is made they will be stopped.
Cahill ties some grass to roof of storehouse, it is called Mal. If this not done the crops would not grow well. Another pullet given by Elton to Peter who again puts it on a stick put into storehouse roof. Adrian and Peter hit ground with a stick making a peculiar screech, this was not supposed to be seen by the audience. Archibald did not come as his Jir medicine is different from Johnson s and therefore he did not have to make it. Hal beats drum with a stick. Adrian inside the storehouse wails through a flute giving a very eerie sound, this is said to be the Juju wailing for the dead. This Juju called Ka. Ka is a small split bamboo.
Nyap brought a chicken to the entrance of the store house for medicine, but those inside sent it back as they said it was too small. Adrian , Roger , Rowan , Harry are inside. Lorcan is going to make Felip medicine (Twin medicine). This done as Johnson had Man and Woman drum are beaten while lying on the ground, drummers sitting astride them as if they were riding horseback. 4 shields are brought. About an hour is taken up matxx xxx of a section of the compound. Mvir is a tiny round ball like calabash and also a big rattle. Rodney , Philip , Chapman and Terry 's father all blow Mvir or rattle it as also Tschimbir is blown. While so doing they walk around the fire set in the middle of the compound. They seem to be quite gay and begin to dance. The drums are beaten at the same time. This dance called Benin.
Cahill comes out of the store with Kwurum, which he scrapes along the ground. Goes all around the centre of the compound about six times. He rattes Kwurum at the door of the living house where women are to frighten them, while this is being done the people yell and drums are beaten to add to the effect.
Phillip from Tscharl has just come. Cahill gives Nyap (t) a piece of basket handle. He spits on it for blessing. Then men form a circle, at least some of the men, no special type both old and young. Though they all happen to be from Tiket and Tscharl, Ndiel or others could join them. Nyap sings, but in inaudible worlds as he is only grunting. One of his song says that hunger is killing him, what shall he do. another says that he has come to bad place what shall he do. The chorus rattles and sticks, and cries of Oh Oh Oh at the end of the verses. Nyap then sings wrestling song. He hands basket handle to Cahill who then sings wrestling song and hands basket handle on it going around circle in turn each man singing a song. Women begin to wail when wrestling song starts.
Howard threw a spear to storage house where Johnson is. Rodney took it and will keep it. Man does this only once in his life, he did it as he is married to Johnson s daughter. Rodney took it as he is Nyena Nyu. Then Harold given basket handle and allowed to sing. If he had not thrown spear he would not have been allowed to sing or dance. Dancing continues for some time. Men go into store house, wail as if their hearts were going to break, then come out, many joining quite gaily in the dance. John at the moment is shaking and crying at the door to the storage hut. All sorts of people are not singing the wrestling song including those from Ndiel and Tigul. 29 people now dancing. About 150 women are outside the mat wailing. Iron rings with ball bearings inside are put on sticks, these are pounded on the earth in time with the drumbeats, by the dancers.
Archibald , Frederick and Brett come together. Archibald has a Chimbir, Frederick a Kwurum and Brett blows a Tang. Cahill gets his Kwurum from under the store house and joins them. He and Frederick walk around fire dragging them, they circle fire six times. Then rattle Kwurum against wall of the house and circle fire twice more. Then Cahill takes burning stick and puts it towards his mouth as if he were going to eat it, but doesn't. Frederick does the same. Then they put Kwurum back into storage house with Johnson . Then Frederick comes out with basket handle and sings very old song, which cannot be clearly understood. I am told that it is supposed to mean that shoas are hungry and food should be brought to them. 4 of Johnson s hoes have been stuck into the roof of the store house as well as all of his spears. His Yung bell hung outside of the house. They then put 14 ears of corn near the store house, this is for dead people. Humans may eat later, but the dead have taken the best part.
Johnson is reclining on chair made from bamboos under the store house. Is covered from head to foot with a blanket. People wail in front of him, some going so far as to pluck at the blanket.
Both Cahill and Frederick when carrying Kwurum hold a calabash to their face, with the same hand they hold leaves. Frederick s calabash is covered with a leopard skin, Cahill s is naked. Very few young boys in the audience. The few here keep quiet, no rule that they must stay away but most do. They do not dance.
Nyaba, Archibald s Juju, came long before Archibald himself. It is one made of fibre, like a play juju with no mask of carved wood. The man inside danced around the fire a few times and went into store house leaving it there.
The grave is being dug while dancing going on. Anyone can dig it. It is about five feet deep. A tunnel dug underneath which ends up under the medicine house. This is where Johnson will be buried, as therefore rain will not fall on him. Gravedigger may be relative but need not be.
Some of the songs are are: "They took Samuel 's chieftainship awayand then took away the Tangana farms," "If the Tiket peopleli ke they can take chieftainship again" "Now Tscharl people suffer as they don't have farms" "Tangana people swore to the bell what will happen to them" "The people who married their sisters will dance until daybreak" "Obidiah doesn't ??dare?? is the reason that he is a Christian" "As Tscharl people stole chietainship let them work farms with Tangana people". "When D.O. comes they will have him make the boundary". "Young boys musn't die".
The fire that was set in the middle of the compound near the medicines can only be set by someone whose father has died. The songs listed above were each sung by different people. Caspar sings "If a man is near death, they must bring him cold water to drink", and if a man wants water to drink I shall give it to him."
15 people from Ndarrup filed in each holding a spear and without saying anything to anyone went to store house stood in line and wailed in rhythm. They stopped in concert and ambled into the audience. While they were wailing the dancing stopped but as soon as the wailiing finished it started again. If in the dance one steps on another foot, the two touch each others toe and with their head touch each others breast.
Obidiah danced and sang saying "all people say that Obidiah is no good, if he ever stole anything from anyone let them say so".
Cahill stops the dance. He brings out Kwurum as does Frederick . Frederick s wife shouts out that men don't know how to sing. The men joke back and forth across the fence.
Renton talks while all are quiet. He says that Johnson became sick on last Kara market. At first he had a bad headache, then all of his body hurt. Then they thought it was all over Rudolf s farm palaver so he gave goat that it should finish. He then says that if anyone bewitched him he must die, Cahill and Frederick rattle their Kwurums. He then says that if Johnson 's estate owes someone something they should claim, and if anyone owes Johnson something they should say so or Shoa will get them. Kwurum rattled.
If any of the medicines have been forgotten or done badly Tschang should help them anyway, and if anyone tries to spoil any of the medicines they will die. Kwurum rattled. Nyap (T) then said to make spell against witches again which was done and Kwurum rattled. A man from Ndarrup says that if a Warwar man agrees to Tangana taking farms they should die, again Kwurum rattled.
Johnson s wife comes in wearing white string around her head as he is wearing cloth. Johnson s daughter wears it around the waist. Isabel (?) female of Tiket leads Johnson s daughter to near the store house. She ties two white strings onto her. She puts basket upside down on her head and big basket put upside down on her shoulders. The daughter holding on to her waist. She hit the roof of the store house three times each time taking off a bit of thatch. Isabel then repeated this with Johnson s wife. This is always done with a wife and daughter if such exists. When this is done Renton tells all of the women to leave.
Johnson was sat on his chair and tied upright in sitting position to two pieces of bamboo. A small bundle of grass was lit. Johnson carried out. Part of his body had been covered by red ochre, Tschimbir, Ying and Kwurrum brought and made to make noises. Johnson forced into fetal position and placed in shaft. His head faced S. and feet N. His face was oriented towards East. Yiltami (Tiket farms Man Max ) and Robin put him in grave. While burial going on most people dancing. All of the big people came to actual burial and some young ones also. Any male can come. Rodney did most of shoveling of earth, Robin did a bit. They hit the top of the grave with banana stalks so that it wont crack. It probably has this effect as it saturates the ground with liquid coming from the stalk. Diarmuid waved Nam leaves three times over the heads of those who had dug the grave and carried Johnson then three times over the palms of their hands.This is done to drive the spirit of the dead away so that they wont have contact with the living.
A large portion of goat produced for Cahill , Cecil , Renton , Diarmuid and Nyap (T). 14 rounds of Fufu provided. Actually food is provided for all in attendance. Lots of people come, not much meat since number is large but 15 rounds of fufu come making about a total of thirty. Meat and fufu divided up by Renton . Divided up by hamlets. Ndiel and Tiket get largest portions. Tigul and Tscharl get less and Ndurrup gets very small part.
Nov. 14 Johnson s Death.
John tells me that Nyap (T) told him that Johnson had said that the dead people came and offered him corn beer, he was about to drink when a small boy said dont drink or you will die and then who will take care of Nyap, Elton etc. The old people said that he must die as he had treated Samuel Zielinski and Elton badly. The small boy took corn beer away. But Nyap says that Johnson must have lied and drank it otherwise he would not be dead.
Nov 14. Stories about Johnson .
Johnson took away Jir (Bel) medicine from Harold , Elton , Marcus and Ibrahim 's son. He did this because when they took Nya medicine from Samuel and Johnson told him to go away? Elton said that if Samuel forced to go, he would go to, Johnson then got angry and took the medicine away.
They take medicine away by rubbing Du Yilli with left hand on person from whom medicine to be taken. Johnson only vexed with Zielinski and Elton , but the others asked that medicine be taken away from them too, if it was to be taken from their brothers.
A long time ago medicine was made assuring the Shoa would kill anyone who sent his son, or anyone to whom he was acting in loco parentis away. Johnson drove Samuel away and this is what killed him.
Nov. 14. Johnson cont.
Nyap (T) cooked 3 chickens and fufu for people who danced in the morning. Danced until sun came up high. Nyap also gave four chickens to medicine men who cooked them under the store house where Johnson was. Gave 2 chickens to Edmund (Tscharl) who has Tu medicine. Gave one to Peter and Nevin (Peter lives on farm and Nevin lives in Ned 's compound). These two make Jir medicine which they got from Johnson . One chicken given to Lorcan s mother who made the medicine for Johnson s daughter. Edmund made Tu medicine day of Johnson s death. People from Man, Vokude, Yambap were there today. These were people who had married Johnson s sisters and brothers. They did not bring anything. About 8 Man males came. About 15 Yambap, about twelve from Vokude. They came to wail. Men and women wailed inside the compound. Some of the people are to stay the night.
Nyap and Renton told all of the people of the Man to bring one chicken each and one calabash of palm wine.

Nov. 15th Johnson 's death.

We arrived at the compound about 9 A.M. About fifty people were eating in Johnson s compound. 4 people from Mang. Most people were from local compound. Gabriel was cooking a chicken for medicine. This is Chico medicine, and is to stop cough from coming after big man dies. It is made for the widow and the daughter of the deceased as well as for his "brothers and sisters" that wish it. It is necessary that the participants be of Johnson s or the dead mans family, but any relationship at all suffices.
John mother is wearing white strings for Johnson as well as his wife, daughter and sisters. John father is also wearing them but these for his daughter.
Henry makes Gwana (from word Guanama) medicine for a man who married one of Johnson s sisters. This is done so that his crops will not spoil.
Nyap says that there is some more food, but those present must not eat it as they must keep some in case other people come, as it would be bad not to give them food.
Harold is only male from Ndiel.
Cahill , Cecil , Renton , Henry , Diarmuid , Gabriel (Tscharl) Harry (Tscharl) Ibrahim , Marcus , Nyap, John mother and father, Emmanuel , Vince , Johnson s sister and other relatives here.
Chico medicine ends by making small holes in the ground like in new child medicine and drinking beer from it. Then they all cough in the hole and it is covered up. {Drawing of open sideways dumbell/figure of eight} Then Gabriel beats them with a small stick on the back, saying that they will bear lots of male children. Later says that cough will not come. He then shows them how to use hoe and shows Emmanuel how to throw spear.
7 young men come from Mverrup in a group, each carries a spear. They wail for about five minutes in front of the storehouse. Then all stop but one who continues longer, the reason that he does so for a longer time is that he is a brother, while the others have only married Johnson s sisters. While they are wailing, Nyap (T) goes up to them and comically imitates their wailing, this much appreciated by audience and laughter ensues. Some of Johnson s sisters who are sitting around cry out that the young men did not wail enough, but this is a type of joke and said in a good matured way. Men all carry fine spears, and keep them by their side.
Gabriel shows Johnson s wife, his daughter and his sisters how to grind corn, sweep compound and eat bananas.
Food brought to Mverrup people, who all sit together except for the one who is Johnson s brother who sits alone looking downcast.
A man from Mang comes alone, he walks through the compound, as he is not a kinsman he just walks through, greeting people but does not stop.
The Man people also are carrying their spears. At such gatherings outsiders keep their spears with them while local residents do not.
Nyap (T) scolds the boy from Mverrup, who is Johnson s brother, for not coming when Johnson still alive. He goes on for some time about this, boy says nothing. Nyap then explains to him how Johnson died. The boys name is Anthony about 30 years old, John says that he is the son of one of Johnson s distant sisters.
S. Zielinski has come to Tiket but does not come to Johnson s compound. He stays in what used to be his own.
Renton now scolds Anthony for not coming sooner, but finishes saying that it is now passed and he is forgiven but not to do it again. Samuel Zielinski comes in but does not wail. He just comes in and sits down. He came once when Johnson was sick. Nyap tells Anthony to come and live in Tiket. Nyap then tells one man from Mverrup that he must throw a spear, so that one of Nyena Nyu can take it, as he did not do so without being asked he must pay something before the spear will be accepted. This must be done once by a person who marries into a family, it is done either at the death of the father or of a brother of the wife. The boy gave Bartlett one shilling and threw spear. Bartlett went to get spear and keeps it. (Check whether Bartlett is a Nyena Nyu or not. In the notes it says that he is brother-) If Bartlett not Nyena Nyu then it means that it is not only Nyena Nyu who can keep thrown spear.
Nyap then makes medicine for boy who threw spear. He shows him Johnson s grave and says that this will not make him ill.
Women are preparing grass for the making of baskets. Some men spinning, though most are doing nothing. No prohibition on doing arts and crafts at this time.

Nov.15 Church

32 women, 21 men 20 children. 2 men rubbing sticks one drum.
Ellis (Ned 's compound) brought own chair. Samuel Zielinski and Gerald Marsh , Elias , John and another young man. 70% of women are wearing cloths. Women sit on one side, men on the other. A few women sit in the first row of mens section as no space in womans section. Service starts with three or four songs. Teacher then reads from Bible in basic English, then he gives sermon in pidgin. Ian translates the latter. Then more hymns. Then Sunday school which is teaching. Then more hymns. Then announcements. Songs accompanied by clapping and rubbing sticks.
Church male members have many extroverts who like to push themselves forward such as Ellis , in Ned 's compound, Will Abaza , S. Zielinski , Gerald Marsh and Gerald talks most of the time, about 50% of the time not used by teacher or Ian . Will Abaza is close competitor, but his speciality is giving orders to the people. He also looks threateningly at mothers whose children are screaming and tells them to keep quiet, he is usually ignored.
Church had much bigger attendance right after the missionaries came, attendance being about 150 at that time, and they found it necessary to hold services outside of the church. Now is has fallen off, and back to previous number, the old familiar faces are still there but new people have tended to drop away. Some of the outlying churches have increased their membership greatly. Dorofe is to have 33 baptisms while Warwar has only 13. The falling off of attendance is largely due to Goodmans. They are very nice, but are cold to the Mambila. The people dont like him, and they complain that he wont play with them. If Amos were here the whole village would be Christian in no time, at least the younger element.
Nov.15. Cola Nuts and Onions.
Nyap (Ndiel) told me that the Mambila used to believe that if they planted either cola or onions they would die. I believe that the Hausa and Fulani started this story to stop Mambila from growing them and therefore they would have to buy them. Perhaps it might have originated from Banso traders, who pass on their way to Yola with head loads of colas and come back bearing onions. Ian and John agree to my hypothesis. Fergus a long time ago had a Hausa plant a cola tree for him as he was afraid to do so himself.

Nov.15. Mambila selling habits.

When they bring me something to sell they ask a completely fabulous price. They then invariably climb down. By and large I have paid a bit more for things than normal but not too much. Should I begin by offering inflated price they go even higher. I offered Ibrahim 13 shillings for his two tangs, saying that I knew that this was too much but wanted to help him. He immediately said that he wanted £1. without batting any eye. I stuck and he came down. Normal price would be about 4 shillings each. Charles brought me a well decorated mat, he said that he wanted 15 shillings. I said no that I did not want it, but would give him 5 shillings for it. He hemmed and hawed for about 1/2 an hour and finally sold it for 5sh. having offered it at five different prices between 15 sh and 5 in the interim. However the raincoat that the man in Frederick 's compound made for me, I offered him for 7 sh and 6 d. about 1sh over market price. He refused to sell saying that he would sell it for 7 sh or nothing. Finally it was impossible to make a bargain so he kept it.

Tscharl Nov 16th

Members of one family: Rolland , Sinclair (His father was a full sibling of Rolland ) Maxim , Rathbone , Bryan , Caron (Pat. half sib of Rathbone ), Brooke , Roger , Gabriel , Edmund , Marion , Carol , Harry .
Carol and Sinclair had one mother.
Sinclair and Bryan of kin group but doesn't know how. Mother of Shelley 's mother had same father and mother as Bryan . Marion they don't know how related. The dead Marion s mother married at Tinguer and bore Marion . Then she married Keston at Ndarrup and bore Searle . In obtaining genealogy at Tscharl it once more became apparent that people become vexed when they learn that others have given me their names and info about them. They usually don't like to talk about others.

Nov.16. Market.

Roger and Rathbone say that market belongs to them that is to their family. At first market here in Tscharl. That is why it belongs to them. They could stop people from coming to it, if they wished but they wont. They say that they look after it to see that others don't spoil it. They make medicine so that if someone comes to try and bewitch another or steals something, that Shoa will get them. Rathbone is the man who makes the medicine. He makes the Native Chief medicine. Market moved to where it is at present when Theobald was chief. The Mission asked that this be done as it was difficult for their people to come to Tscharl when rains hard and area flooded. Rathbone and Rolland said that people to come to Tscharl when rains hard and area flooded. Rathbone and Rolland said that they could move it back if they wished.
Nov.16. Johnson s death.
While in Johnson s compound two men from Kara were there. They said that a very big man from Kara wished to come but that he was too old, therefore he sent them. The big man has said that Nyap must send him a chicken. Nyap said that he had none but would give 3 sh. They said that this was not enough to buy chicken and argued for more. Nyap stood firm and finally got them to agree to 3 sh. Chicken was to be used for food, not medicine. The big man is older than Johnson .
Delegation came from Gembu, about twelve men of varying ages. Filed in silently with their spears. Elton gave them two rattles without a word being spoken. They wailed for a few minutes then Elton took back rattles and put them in house. Two men came from Dembe, one went into storehouse and wailed other did not. The one who went in was Johnson s brother, the other came merely to keep him company. Gembe two sit alone until others from here come to join them. Gembu people also sit alone in a group. Many more men come from far away than do women. Several women came while he was sick, but none have come after first few days after death. Stranger from Dembe tells Nyap not to worry about Johnson as all people must die. He continues to talk of floods in Dembe, then Nyap tells long story about how the flood trapped V. Zielinski . People from Gembu leave after about one hour without having been given food.

Nov. 16. Incest - Marcus married his sister.

Roger 's mother bore Marcus s wifes mother. Marcus s wifes mother married Archibald . Archibald was father of Marcus s wife, also his sister. Girl living at Archibald s compound, when Marcus eloped with her. She bore two children with Marcus but both died, so she married at Mang. There she did not conceive either so she returned to Archibald s compound, where she is now
Nov.16. Fowls
If fowls carried across water, they will not lay for a long time, unless they are carried on a persons back like a child. This told me by Ian and is connected with the idea that bride must be carried across stream on a man's back.

Nov. 16. Leopard Men

Ian says that he knows that men can turn into leopards, the same men can also turn into hawks, if they want to escape. If a father who has this power, sees that his son who has turned into a leopard while still small is in danger, he will hurry to come to his rescue.
Nov.16th Power of Women.
A time ago Cadogan 's wife refused to have any of the Mukada's entourage sleep in one of their houses. Though Frederick and Adrian argues against her, her word was taken as final, and her continued refusal respected. Today a Bororo came to Clifford 's compound and tried to buy firewood. Clifford wanted to sell it to him, but the wife from Kabri refused. She said that she did not have enough, Clifford argued for a long time and finally she agreed. His argument was that it was not right to refuse to help strangers. He admitted that if his wife had continued to refuse he would not have been able to sell any.

Nov. 17th. Dreams

Last night John dreamt that he was walking by Tiker dance place with J. Kennedy . They saw Johnson there weaving, Johnson was very fat. Both John and J. Kennedy were very frightened and hurried off. Johnson did not speak to them.
Clifford s Dream. He dreamt that he saw an aeroplane. His cousin from Vokude in it. The cousin as well as Fulani people came out of plane. A Fulani man opened his mat and took out a pan which he tried to sell to Clifford . Clifford asked whether the plane carried nothing but pans. Fulani man also tried to sell him food, but it was bad food. He asked his cousin what the aeroplane was like and she said that inside the plane one had to keep quiet or the aeroplane would fall. He asked more, and she said that she would not answer his foolish questions. Clifford then woke up.
Nov. 17th. Terry 's mother now sleeping in Frederick 's compound as she is sick

Nov 17. Clifford AND HIS WIFE

Clifford says that his wife, not the Kabri one, is angry with him. She cursed his mother's sexual organs and also his fathers. Clifford sent her away. He says that if someone does this he never wants to see them again, even if the person were a white man. He doesn't want her to come back. She went to sleep in Frederick 's compound. He handed her a stick that was on the fire, this is a sign that you want your wife to leave.
Clifford gave a cock and a spear £2. and six chickens for her. Also 10sh to one of her brother when he wanted to get married, 15 sh. To another and 5 to another all when they wanted to marry. Also gave £1. To her mother. Also worked farm for her. He does not expect to get it back, he was not through paying. He then thinks that she is a witch, that is his wife. He says that he wont summons her as they have child. If when the child gets big enough and they wont give it to him, then he may summons her for bride price return. He paid a Fulani man £1. To make medicine to make her conceive, as she was a long time without conceiving. Shortly after medicine made she conceived.

Nov.18. Ngam or Land spider.

We went to Garth s to consult land spider on my behalf. First Garth got out leaves, chicken feathers and sprig of leaf which smelt like mint. He brought burning wood and burned chicken feather and let it drift over leaves. Then he bit mint leaves and spat over the other leaves. Then we left for bush. 5 minutes walk away, we found overturned pot. He lifted one up and blew smoke into the hole, and rubbed pot with porcupine quills. Muttered something. Asked me for money, this must be done before consulting Ngam. I gave him 3d which he then inserted in porcupine quills, he then put in leaves on top of hole and a stick and a stone. If Ngam touches the stick then answer is yes, if stone is no. He then closes up the top with pot and we do the same thing for another Ngam. The Ngam comes out and pushes over leaves and touches stick while we are gone. He then inverts the two, asks the same question and leaves. He read from the way Ngam had pushed the leaves that I would give fowls for my wife, that she would cook food for me and that she would conceive.
People with Ngam medicine.
Ndiel: Harold , Frederick , Garth . Tiket Hal , Cahill . Tigul, Bartholomew , Bryce . Tscharl: Ross , Sinclair .
Garth says that he can give the medicine to anyone, they need not be of his family. The smoke is blown into Ngam hole, because ostensibly the Ngam likes smoke. The leaves are placed over the hole. When they talk of Ngam touching the stick or stone they mean that in sticking his head out he pushes the leaves in one direction or another. Either in the direction of the stick or the stone. In both cases the leaves moved only slightly in the direction of the stone or stick. The large number of leaves are just pushed a bit. The whole thing took about an house and a quarter. Women cannot consult the Ngam directly but they can consult the cut sticks method, though they dont know how to do it themselves.

Nov.18. Witchcraft.

John and Ian both agree that a witch can bewitch a person who owes them money whether related or not, that is if debtor refuses to pay back when asked. Implied threat of witchcraft often used in settling debts.
Nov 18.
Catherine , Harold s daughter was given to Johnson about a month ago. She helps them with work. Johnson s kin will get the bridewealth as Harold s oldest daughter when married, the bride price went to Harold . John mother and father sent his full sibling to live with he and Theresa to take care of Amos and help Theresa with other work.
Nov 20. Niall (Tigul)
Niall has been sick for a very long time. He is lying on a mat in the sun. Does not seem to be very ill. Few people in the compound. Only a few young men and women making pots. Many people in Tscharl making pots today. One woman making them by coil method. Measured a loom at Tigul. 49 feet in one direction from where weaver sits, 63 feet to the other.

Nov.20 Pottery

All pots seem to be made by coils method, Coils about a foot long. One laid on top of the other then squeezed together. Then sides of pot scraped making a flat surface. Saw Archibald s wife cooking her pots. big mound of dried grass set up with pots inside. Grass lit, fire burns very hot and for a long time.

Nov 21. Tiket Farms

Went out to farms to see corn beer sale going on. Almost all there were inhabitants of the farms. They give larger cups of corn beer for 1d there as there are far fewer clients. This applies equally to Tiket but to a lesser degree, as there are fewer clients than in Ndiel, as they are not so near to the market.
Nov 21. Took census of Tiket farms. A bit difficult, five compounds were done at corn beer sale. Heads of compound a bit reluctant to talk, but after some browbeating they came forward and did their job. All done in about four hours. Checking proved that it was accurate.
Nov 21. Learned that circumcision will be done after Tsimbir.

Nov. 22nd Vokude medicines

In Vokude a woman has fence medicine. We saw her distributing Lobal in several compounds. A girl was helping her. In her compound she spat 3 times on 3 stones in her own compound. They were not upright as cooking stones but lying flat on the ground. She said that it was no stones that she was giving beer to, but the grass under stones. This was done so that illness would not come to compound. This is part of fence medicine. Evidently here women as well as men have always had fence medicine, but men have it too. Only two women can go behind fence here to see jujus. The woman herself and her daughter who helps her. If her marry they must stay in the village. The mother is married to a man who came from Vokude, the daughter not yet married. They evidently go to all of the compound in Vokude to deliver Lobal.
4 Kassalas in Vokude.That is four hamlets.
She only makes fence medicine for two hamlets, two others make it differently. 4 young men come each blowing a wooden flute they came to chiefs compound, followed by a flock of small boys. Circled compound once and then walked out. They do this only for the first two hamlets. All the females either ran away or hid their eyes. The older ones hid their eyes, the younger ones ran away. The chief is both European and native chief. He carries a bush cow tail and has a peculiar shaped stool. First European chief was his father's brother. The second his paternal half brother and the third him. He is very old, older than Frederick and blind. The woman who makes fence medicine is Warren 's mother. Her husband has Mambila bow and arrow. Has poison on the end, has no metal at all.
People who came from Warwar to Vokude for Bel (Jir) medicine. Ndiel-Frederick , Clint , Nyap, Roland , Langley , Malachi . Tiket Henry , Bartlett , Bowen (sleeps in Karel s compound), Quentin (Mbar)
compound) Neil (Cecil s compound) Jem (Tiket farms) Stanley (Tiket farms) Kitty (Gregory s wife) was here for market. No one from Tigul and Tscharl.
Behind fence, they would not let us in until Jujus, Ka and Tscimbir had come. Many big men had come. Mostly middle aged men danced with Tschimbir, younger ones with Ka. Two women were behind fence. One drum which a man beat with coiled up grasslike when a man dies. Fire burning. All had taken off their upper body covering except Elias , John and I. A man brings a pot of corn beer. All made to sit. Two women with one young man and one older one sit in the centre near a tree. Young man holds a big branch of grass. Older woman drinks beer and then feeds it to the others. She spits on the grass three times. Another young man joins them. People wander around, chat, yell at each other and get angry at each other. People are shouting instructions. One old man says that they must stand when they spit beer. Others disagree, big argument they remain seated. A young man distributes a bit of grass to all adult males in the audience, that is all living in village. Then they made Tschuk medicine. The women had gone by this time. No prohibition against wearing hats. At end of Tschuk medicine they all shout as loud as they can use whistles and make much noise. Again grass distributed over which Tschuk medicine had been made. Blind chief takes out Yung bell, and goes to centre. All keep silence. Chief says that even if in past Vokude used to fight Warwar they must now let Warwar marry their daughters. Yerima adds that Ndarrup also must be allowed to marry their daughters, in spite of reigning farm dispute. Chief rings bell for these two statements. If any man refuses to let his daughters marry into the two towns they must die. If dispute arises in village, they must try and settle it among themselves before taking it into court or Shoa will catch them. Bell rung. Europeans say that people must no longer fight, if anyone does Shoa will catch them. Bell rung. Yerima says if anyone poisons or witches Warwar or Ndarrup people or bewitches his brothers, then Shoa will get them. Bell rung. Each time bell rung Tschimbir blown. In cases of seduction they must take case to chief not to court, he will settle. Bell rung. Yerima suggested this one.
Another big man says if fight breaks out must not go to court. Bell rung. Big people dance around tree. Dance is slow, and they sing Oh. Oh Oh. This is said to be very old song. Chief beats man drum, another big man beats woman drum. Chief beats man drum with bundle of grass. Shortly all men begin to dance. Chief stops beating drum, and begins to beat time on his bell, but this is not for ritual.
Chief stops the dancing. He says as some people having trouble getting brides, the old taboo against marrying sisters should be lifted. He removes the taboo by waving knife in the air and then planting it in the ground. He then says if anyone tries to bewitch one who marries his sister, they must die. He rings bell for this. Announcement greeted with some enthusiasm.
At this moment a group of Ndarrup men come in without spears. Hiram and Nathaniel from Tigul come. Many women listen to new regulations and dance outside the fence. Nyena Nyus some very small ones drink the corn beer that is left after medicine made.
Nov 22. On way home from Vokude met Cadogan . He showed us the river which is the boundary between Vokude and Warwar. He said long ago there were fights between the two towns. Warwar people drove the Vokude people out and they retreated up the hills. By mutual consent boundary fixed where it now lies. In Vokude I saw a man with the kind of sword illustrated by Meek. He refused to sell it and says that doesn't know where one can be found for sale.

Nov 22. Vokude Chief

The Vokude chief - mother is from Neil s Man in Tiket. Yerimas mother was from Adrian s family.
Frederick came to Vokude but did not go behind fence for medicine. The only Warwar people to go behind fence were John , Elias , Malachi and Roland .

Nov.22 War

John says that when two towns realised that too many people were being killed in war, they would send a Nyena Nyu to the other town to discuss with a Nyena Nyu from their town how to make peace. Or the Nyena Nyu might go to his mothers family for this. That is the Nyena Nyu delegate would be Nyena Nyu of enemy town. He said that Mang people killed so man Titon people that the latter gave them dogs and fowls to stop fighting. Vokude, Mbamga and Mang fought against Warwar, Gembu Yambap.

Nyap (N) says that Adrian has Tatschor medicine. A few people have it, but it is the type of medicine that only owners can see, so many don't know that it exists. Quite esoteric.

Nov.22. Exogamy

Apparently the rule that one cannot marry any relative is breaking down in many places. I have heard that it is breaking down in Mang and now Vokude. Maybe in still other place.

Nov 22nd. Courts

The chief of Vokude as mentioned above rang bell that anyone taking case to court without first attempting to settle it internally in old fashion would be killed by Shoa. This is not first case of this type of legislation. People as a whole don't like courts and especially older people. It has been said that the Administration has issued a rule that all cases be taken to court, and it is not a popular ruling. Only those who think that they may get something for nothing and don't care about public opinion even think of using the courts.

Nov.23. Ian 's wife

A man whose mother had same mother as Ian s wife came from Mbamga today. Ian s wife mother came Mbamga, but father from Vokude, but parents married by exchange so he is responsible to Vokude people. This mans wife died with a small child so that he asks that Ian s wife comes to Mbamga to give child the breast. Ian doesnt want her to go. The main reason that he is against it that his wife is ill. She has worms in her eyes.

Nov 23. Adrian 's new compound

This morning we found Adrian clearing a place near Brett s compound. Ian thought that he was clearing ground for corn, but we learned that he was clearing ground for compound. Place had been planted with Tin trees which he cut down and cleared off grass. He was doing work alone. A few people stopped to talk but only helped him when he had to roll a big log off of the centre of the field. He burned some of the grass that he had cleared. John and I helped him for about three hours but we were the only ones.

Nov. 23rd. V Zielinski 's New House

Neal called people to come and help him work on V. Zielinski 's new house. Neal is trying Gertrude . Helping to build were Garth , Thor , Herbert ., Nyap, Harold , Gregory , Caspar , Roland , Irving , Neal , V. Zielinski , Andrei , Petros , Hamish (Johnson s compound) Roland from Tscharl came but did no work. Finlay , Lonnie , Carr (Chapman s compound Tiket) also helped. Women who came Anna (Ian s daughter), Roberta , Nyaps wife, Clifford s wife, Gertrude , Petros s wife, Beverley , Fiona (Graeme s wife), Kathleen , Gwen , Thor s wife, V. Zielinski s wife.
Roland just passed through coming from seeing Archibald s wife who was supposed to cook some pots for him. Women carrying water to make mud. Frederick s wife came but did not work. The same applies for Clifford s divorced wife. Bits of grass cut up to hold mud together. They are pounded into the mud by foot. Only do this when house is built without permanent wood frame. Ian s is not working as he is waiting for his wifes brother to sober up enough to leave for Mang. Circumference of the house is 48 feet. They use 44 poles around outside to hold up mud walls. Both men and women make mud. Only women carry water and only men make mud walls and put up posts. Harold ties a string up eight feet on one of doorposts. It continues around the whole of the house to mark limit of where walls must come.
Harding a boy of about twelve has same father as Gertrude .
When mud hardens they take out the sticks. V. Zielinski and Garth bring four pots of corn beer. V. Zielinski says that they will give three pots to men and one to women. Finally they give two to women and three to men. First cup given to Harold who pours a part near right foot of Gregory . Gregory touches it with right index finger. Harold drinks it. Second cup given to Phillip who shares with Frederick 's wife. 3rd cup to Phillip again, 4th Harold , 5th to Gregory who gives it to a child, 6th to Archibald who has just come. While pot for big people being drunk by them younger men drinking their own. Gregory given another cup. He tells Martin to take a small sip, then he drinks it, Gregory immediately given second and then third cup. However people did not keep still as he drank. Gregory , Harold , Paul , Archibald , Garth , Petros were big mans circle. Ibrahim wanders in and is given a cup. 3 small boys given one cup, each took a part in strict order of seniority.
Men say that women work less hard in housebuilding and hence given less beer. When walls up, sticks put against them to hold them up, both inside and out. Ibrahim who had wandered in on his own later worked very hard. Nyap (T) who wandered in helped put up sticks to support wall.

Date unknown. Frederick says that for Gelbon and Tu medicine medicines first cooked on stones to warm ancestors.
Selwyn Tscharl was leader of Maka.

Order of D.O.'s to visit Mambila area.
Glasson (First) 1939 Bradshaw
Heath 1940 Logan
Izzard (Known as Malafia) 1942 Lawrence-Cox
Blair Cunningham Sing (went mad)
Gill Blaire-Fish
Welch (Known as Dogo Bahunkali of tall fool) MAJOR Moore
Beaver (1932) Mathews
Paul and Percival. (Paul took German flag from Kabri)1934-8 De Boulay

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