Selling into slavery

Long time ago of someone did many bad things, he would be sold into slavery. Father could sell his children but big man of kin group had to agree. A man would be sold for 80 hoes, a small boy for 60. Father would give big man some of hoes. They did not eat slaves. Doesn't know anyone in Warwar who was slave or whose father or mother was slave.


Yambap came as they are brothers of his wife, his wife from Yambap.
July 20 Bridewealth of Karel .
Worked farms many times for his wife Abigail .
Gave 20 chickens, £2 and small presents to her sisters. Gave cock and spear. Hasn't finished giving all to father, will give him £2 more. His father helped him in raising bridewealth. His first wife was Eliza from Vokude she is Andy s sister. Then he married Abigail . Then he married Brenda daughter of Bartholomew . She died. His first wife Linda did not conceive and was vexed as other two wives did so she left him. He says he may try and take Linda to court to try and get some cargo back. He gave her family £5, and is going to ask just for the £5, even though he gave her brothers and sisters other gifts, as well as cock and spear which he will not claim back. He wants some of the bridewealth back as she bore him no children. They were separated two years ago, she is now married to Todd at Vokude, has conceived there.


When chief tells people to work he supervises. Warwar made him Dogari. His father was Dogari also made by Denis , his father was Jan . Have not paid him yet. Dogari is not family property. Tries to keep people silent when Rathbone drinks, but does not do this for Gregory . He says that he is Obidiah s brother.
He says that he can work farm like all of the people as job of Dogari does not take much time. Sometimes goes with chief when he goes on errands and sometimes he doesn't depending on the farming situation. He is older than Obidiah . Has to buy his own red robe. He is the man who gave me the names of the months in Mambila, taught him by his father, few people know them, but Cahill does. Deverell , Harry are living ex Dogaris.


33 men with one wife, 6 with two.


Graeme says that he would like exchange marriage to come back so that he could keep all of his children. When marriage is by bridewealth mother's family can claim at least one.


When the big Theobald of Tigul died they called Rolf 's father when he born Theobald . Gwyn father of Nathan the first grandfather of Theobald lived in Tigul, but came down to live in Ndiel and bore Nathan here. Father of Gwyn was Lebir. He says that Jules was of Gwyn s family but doesn't know how.

July 21 Marital Relations.

A man from Mang told John that very recently a woman got angry with her husband. She gave him their child to hold and then hit him with a stick and her fists. He put the child down and then gave her a sound thrashing. The next day he was very ill. They are consulting big ants to see whether she bewitched him. After he got ill, she went to her father's village with the child. I asked John to ask the fellow whether the ant had said that husband or wife was witch. John reluctant to ask but under pressure did. Question greeted with laughter, as evidently such questions not asked outside of the family. If your brother, sister or wife is witch you don't tell others. The man concerned in wife beating is a brother of John as well as of the boy who told us the story.

Cadogan of Trees.

Land on which Rolf placed his compound belongs to Cadogan , Cadogan gave him permission to use it but told him not to cut down trees. Later told him could cut down trees, but not use wood. Rolf had trees cut and used wood. Cadogan is vexed, has put medicine on the wood that remains so Rolf won't use it.
Cadogan says that he has a full sibling, male, in Yola. Both he and this man used to trade colas from Bamenda to Yola. The brother stayed in Yola. His name is Dickie , his Fulani name is Devlin .
July 26

Ron had corn beer party.

Archibald had people come from Mverup to farm. He did not make corn beer as they are brothers of a man who married his daughter. He will cook chickens for them. 9 people came to help Archibald . Last night he killed a goat for them and one chicken. Today they will eat rest of goat and a chicken. They will work for him again tomorrow.
Clint had 8 from Mverrup, 6 were brothers of man who will marry Pippa , 2 girls about 17.
Alexis from Dorofe, Petros sleeps Kidjua's compound in Ndarrup. Petros is the son of Frederick s real sister. He married Alexis 's sister with bridewealth. They bore six children. Alexis asked him for one and sent him to Muslim school. Petros then sent same boy to Mbamga to learn about Christianity, However boy refused and fled back to Alexis . Alexis is Mambila, but has taken Fulani fashion. Alexis summoned Petros before Darius . Darius asked Petros why he did not want to become a Muslim. Petros said he did not want to. So Darius told Alexis to take back his sister and all five children which he did. Petros has now lost all. Darius told Alexis not to give back bridewealth. The Wakili agreed to all of this. Petros did not want his son to go to Muslim school and Darius said not wanting son to go such a school cursed God and this is why he said Alexis should take all of the children.
According to D.O. about a year and half ago Petros decided he would become a Muslim. He went to Mallan to learn about it. He later gave it up. His wife continued wanting to become a Muslim

Discussion between Brett s two wives.

The younger one was ill and didn't work corn much. The older said therefore she should not be given a share of crop. Adrian , Brett , Gregory , Harold , Ezra , 2 wives, Thor 's mother, Ezra s wife and sister of wife who was refused corn met in Ezra 's kitchen. Much talk. All argued that this was bad fashion and told second wife that she should give the other some of the corn. Harold , Gregory , Adrian did most talking. They said that when the wife refusing to give corn's, her husband died Brett 's brother, they had let her keep all of the corn and guinea-corn. They all angry about her behaviour. Some say that she should be sent back to her family. Not one person agrees with her. The first wife, the younger son, had evidently gone back to her kin due to her illness during corn planting season. Wife refusing to give her corn is second wife. She tells why she is vexed. She says when she first came first wife did not want to give her corn. This time first wife did not work so she doesn't want to give her corn. Brett stays silent. Adrian says that she stole guinea-corn from Brett s store and he is vexed. Then the first wife talked and gave her grievances. She is vexed because second wife stole Brett 's guinea-corn. First wife is Obidiah s sister. First wife vexed because Brett took four shillings from her to buy chicken for second wife. She is also vexed because Brett made corn beer for second wife's brother but not for hers. Adrian said Brett acted badly. Until now Brett had said nothing. During confessions no one interrupts. Adrian gives history of marriage and says corn will be equally divided between two wives. The two kneel before Adrian , and he says that they should not be vexed at each other. He repeats their grievances and says as they have confessed the medicine will not catch them. He sprinkles them with water and they are given bits of grass to eat. He spits on his little finger and then touches each on their breasts, the pours water through the hands of the two women. Adrian , Gregory , Harold , tell Brett not to make trouble between the two women. Brett tell, Harold , Gregory , Adrian to come and divide the corn.
July 28th. Frederick , Clifford and Martin came to my house to discuss Tangana farm palaver, They are very disturbed as are all big people of village. Though it applies only to Tscharl the whole village is upset. Frederick says in old days they would have fought to regain farms.

John on MAN

John says one can be of Man of mother if one lives in that town or Man of father if one lives in that town.
The use of the term owning children, father's group in case of exchange, mothers in case of bridewealth, means that the owning group inherits and is responsible in case person commits a crime. Person can not be buried until head of owning group is present. Nyap is big man of John 's group.iIf exchange broken children belong to mothers brother.


Fixing corn. Nathan , Nyap, Finlay , Stott , Cadogan 's wife, Ron , Thor , Caspar , Kathleen . Fixing of corn is cutting off the hairs and stripping back some of the covering and tying in bunches of four or eight ears. I saw Roland , Warren , Jack , Abraham and Howie carrying baskets full. 7 young girls carried baskets including Harold 's daughter. Today they brought 26 baskets, seven more carried by girls making total of 33.


I had understood Frederick to say that I could not come to medicine making, but this not so. He had meant that I had seen this medicine before and hence should not waste time. The meeting was held so that Obidiah could report what he had learned in Gembu, what orders came from there. Then RATHBONE rang bell over Obidiah s head for guinea-corn. This was to protect Warwar guinea-corn


One dressed himself up with grass hiding his face, shoulders and arms down to the waist. He chased the others and flogged them if he caught them. I mistakenly held one, Terry and called the one wearing the grass saying Shoa come and flog Terry . Jed who was wearing mask threw it off and ran away. I learned later that adult men beat them if they called their play masks shoas.


Dorothy has sold a big carrying basket full of guinea-corn for 6sh. It was not hers, she was selling it for a friend. A man was selling small very nicely made baskets. First price 6sh. quickly went down to five but said could could go no lower as woman for whom he was selling had said this lowest possible price. 3 people from Gembu Petil came with medicine man. Went around him three times. Hit each of them with twig saying if witch tried to catch them the grass would kill them. 2 of people were men and one a woman. This was first time that they had come to market since bearing children. Beads that Mambila buy are 3d a string. Cassavas, bananas, plantains, salt, tobacco, matches, beads, stings, baskets, substance that they say tastes like meat but that they get from the ground, guinea-corn, corn, eggplants, dried fish palm oil all for sale in market today. I have yet to see a Mambila buying corn or guinea-corn or guinea-corn in market. One woman was going to buy 2sh worth from Dorothy , but refused when the latter would not give her a big dash of guinea-corn. For first time I saw corn beer for sale at market. Be from Nathan 's compound and her friends brought 3 pots that she had made to sell market. Bororo women selling milk and butter. Six chickens also for sale, but none sold.


Went by Foster s compound. He was cooking chickens. This because a woman whose big big father had sworn blood brotherhood with Foster s big big father had been cut and blood flowed while they were playing about. The man who swore pact from Gembu. Both parties must bring a chicken in this case medicine made and two chickens eaten.

August 2nd. Medicine made for Samuel Zielinski .

Rathbone , Gabriel , Frederick , Harry , Zielinski , Renton , Bryce , Johnson , Cecil here. Some argument as to whether it could start without Cahill and Foster . Frederick said yes, Johnson said no and sent for them. Johnson is making this medicine so that Samuel can stay. Foster did not come. Johnson rang bell. Samuel began to talk. Frederick stopped him saying that he wanted Samuel and Johnson to say why medicine being made. Bryce said that he heard that Samuel wanted to poison Obidiah and wanted Samuel to drink bell that he wouldn't. Frederick says that it is better if Samuel says everything that is bothering him and they will ring bell. Samuel tells whole story of people begging him to be chief, as well as Schneider. Mallam Taffi wrote letter to Gembu to make him chief. No women here during this time. A few children about but Johnson chased them away. This is all taking place on dance floor outside fence of Tiket. All quiet while Samuel talks. Tiket people sit together, Tscharl and Ndiel people together. Rathbone and Frederick sit on same log. Frederick interrupted once to ask what Mallam had told Samuel not to go to Gembu when summoned, and Samuel answered Mallam Taffi. Johnson told Samuel to hurry up as people wanted to go. Bryce gives history of chieftainship. Cecil says that he is vexed as he was not told everything beforehand. Cahill , Cecil and Frederick argue, argue as to whether Cecil should have been forewarned. Cahill says that he was. Cecil says that a long time ago big people had meeting alone before talking to small boys and agreed together. is angry because they don't do it still Cahill agrees that 4 Kassalas and other big men should come together and discuss problems and then later meet small boys. John told me it would be bad if women were present.

August 2nd. Taking medicine off of Samuel .

Elton and and Marcus say if Samuel goes they will go to.
Johnson and Gregory and Samuel were here when took off Nya medicine. Gregory took Du leaves, rubbed on Samuel 's forehead and that was all. Zielinski gave him a chicken Samuel talks some more and then says finished. Johnson hits bell three times and hits ground with bell. He says if Samuel tries to poison Obidiah , if he tries to steal money Shoa will get him, Samuel sits down. Women passed during meeting but covered their eyes.
Rathbone says that he is not the one responsible for removing Samuel . Johnson rings bell. Cahill says only good chiefs have been Denis , Rudolf and Tom . Rathbone says if any of his kin wrote letter to have John removed, that is that he was not Warwar man, that he should die. Big people said to Johnson not to ring bell for this as Rathbone should not swear for others. The big point of argument is somebody wrote letter saying Samuel was from Tep and should not be chief. Nobody knows who wrote letter. Johnson says if anyone comes to cut sacred trees Juju will catch them. Gabriel says if anyone should try and witch Samuel or Warwar Shoa will get them. Johnson says if anyone tries to make trouble between the two Shoa will get them. If Johnson says if someone tries to bewitch chickens, dogs or goats, Shoa will catch them. Plenty have died lately. Bell rung. Everytime he rings bell he touches ground with it.


Terence of Kabri, Elias 's father told me. Rowland of Kabri is Terence 's brother. Rowland 's mother had same mother and father as Terence 's father.
Caretaker of cows in Valentine , the owner is Magnus who lives in Dorofe. Valentine taking care of cows first time they are his corn. They ate it all, this year. He says that he planted it three times and cows ate each time. They put Valentine in jail for 14 days and Rowland received £1.4sh. When planted guinea-corns this year, cows came and spoiled ridges and trampled down guinea-corn. This happened less than a month ago. Same farm where they spoiled corn. First they told Alkali as Darius in Banso, when Darius came back they told him. Darius sent messenger to look at farm. Messenger said that the Mambila must build a fence. Farm is down near water, but not near a watering place for cows. Lionel (my friend) and Magnus offered him 10sh not to work farm.
August 2nd.
Yesterday Be of Archibald s compound sold corn beer. She said that she made 10sh 6d. Today 65 baskets of corn brought into Archibald s compound. Yagis wife, Emily sold only 4sh worth of beer has some left over.

Aug. 3rd. Kabri Farm Palaver.

Rowland returned from Gembu He says.
Fred , the doorkeeper of Darius stopped him from seeing Darius and Alkali and report cows had destroyed guinea-corn. He said that he could see neither Alkali or Darius as he the doorkeeper had told him to build fence and he hadn't. So neither Alkali nor Darius knows that guinea-corn has been spoiled.

August 5th.

Nyap says if he should die Roland or Neal would get his cargo and farms. When Nathan dies Langley , Roland or Neal will get his farms and cargo. Cadogan would divide and would take a large share. When Alfred died his mother's family was called, they divided it and gave some to Nathan as well as other children. Mother's family took none of farms.
If Langley died Adrian would get some and he would divided it. Page of Dyson s compound says if he dies his father's brother will get all his cargo, this man from Ndarrup. Dyson says if Page dies he will get cargo.
Dyson says if he dies, Murdoch , Page , Franco (Murdoch is his paternal 1/2 sibling) Isaac , Manley , Franco would all get equal parts He says of Adrian died he would divide and get a share. If he dies Adrian will divide and take a small part, but give most to Dyson s kids.
Adrian says if Nyap dies Des (Mverrup) would divide his cargo. Nyap and Des paternal 1/2 siblings. Roland and Neal would get a part of his cargo, Adrian would get some as he lives in Adrian s area.


If the mother dies and baby only one or two days old they bury it with mother, if no one to give it milk. Dyson says if possible they give child to a woman who already has child, if woman has enough for two. Child can be given to a member of ma's family or pa's family or anyone to feed it. Can give to a second wife of father, but often they fear that the second wife would not feed it properly. Franco of Dyson s compound was given to his mother's mother to feed. She still had milk.


Adrian says if he dies, Iain who had same father with him and lives in Ndarrup, Gregory , Harold and Rodney would get some. Iain would get most as he is oldest. Iain lives in Ndarrup once lived here, was near to death and moved away. He was being bewitched but Adrian says does not know who was doing it. Iain would be big man for Man if Adrian dies as he is second oldest. Iain told me he was witched in Ndiel and hence went to Ndarrup. Marion , his sister, same father but different mother witched him, Ngam told him. Has no family in Ndarrup. Marion died because she was witch, not from sasswood. Adrian called John 's wife Rachel because Adrian related to John way back. Adrian s mother came from John mothers mothers family. John cannot marry Adrian s daughter. One can call wife the wife of a younger kinsman.

Frederick on Inheritance

Mallam Taffi would get most of his cargo, Aylmer would get some. Ian , Clifford , Benjamin would get hold hoes, a chicken or a spear. Mallam Taffi, Aylmer and Charles would get most. Mallam Taffi would divide and get his palm wine trees. Mallam Taffi, Clifford , Charles Andrei might get some farms.


His father Rudolf from Tigul and mother Arke from Mverrup. His father's father Frank from Tigul and the latters wife Maxine from Tigul.
His parents married by exchange. His mother died first.
He says Karl , Max and Clint were all brothers but doesn't know how. When Johnson dies big man from man Max would be Nyap. Nyap will divide cargo. The people from the two allied Man would get a part including Renton and Henry . He says that when he dies he will see members of his family that have died. He knows that they will give him food just before he dies, but doesn't know what they will look like. does'nt know whether there is punishment in after life, but doubts it.
August 6th. Dougal had corn beer for those bringing in corn for him. About 90 baskets brought. All who brought it in were his relatives. Dougal had made anti-rain medicine.


His mother's family have eaten mole for all times. Does not have medicine for those who eat it by mistake. Cahill can't eat it. He ate it first when small at his mothers place and has kept on doing so ever since. He says all other Warwar people don't eat.
People who carried in corn for Adrian . August 10, 1953.
Jake , Jimmy (Tigul) Christos (Tigul) Kent (Tigul) Carstairs (Tigul) Bryan , Theophilus ,Luke , Rhys , Artie , Jason , Lorcan , Suge, Gerry all above are Tigul people. Women who came, Delia , Patricia , Enid , Jemima , Eileen , Rosamund . All of these people came as Laurie asked them too. He married Rosamund Adrian 's child.
August 15.
Dion is Sarkim Barki at Yilbene which is near Kabri and under Kabri chief. Jauru Belle cows ate his corn, Studley was herdsman. This happened a month ago. One cow fell in canal that Man had made. Morgan went to Gembu to report him for digging holes to catch cows. Cow died. Morgan accused him of taking dead cow and eating it, Dion said this lie. When Don Doka came he and Kabri chief and Don Doka found cow rotting in hole. Alkali put Dion in jail for one night, then told him to pay Morgan for cow. He gave him a female cow 6 years old that he had. Morgan told him that he must leave the area. While in Gembu cows ate all of his crop. Morgan has been spoiling his farms for five years, Tin has been spoiled. He claims that his father always planted this farm and that previous Fulani did not touch it.
Aug. 15. Nam Kol and Tschuk medicine.
Today they are to make these medicines for Charles s daughter. Afterbirth buried right by the side of the house. Hole is dug by either man or mothers or fathers family depending who happens to be around. Must be dug by a family member and a male but age does not matter. The hoe which digs hole is left on the rock covering the hole. Handle taken from the blade. Hoe cannot be used until Namkol and Tschuk medicine is made or child will die. Ezra is to make Namkol and Clifford to make Tschuk. Reuben came with Ezra . Ezra takes a bunch of Lebir, Tu and Guli grass in the house. Pulls mother out of house by means of leaves. Husband and wife sit on stool. Ezra takes string from Ezra s neck and from his wifes, and ties on childs neck. Corn beer and red ochre brought from house by Charles . Umbilical cord has fallen off baby. Charles pours out a small calabash of corn beer gives it to Ezra , who helps him drink some. Then they both drink and he sprays on grass that is tied to spear on roof of house. Then they pull spear out. Then they take grass off spear, Charles sweeps compound with it going backwards and throws it in bush. Ezra takes Bol grass puts leaf in Charles s mouth and cuts off a bit of his hair, does same for wife and child. Blade with three bits of hair given to Lorna , a girl in compound. Ezra touches the 3 on forehead, chest, and navel, with right index finger which is covered with oil and red ochre. Then Charles does same for himself and wife. Ezra waves guli grass over both head of parents. same {sic} Kissum that they should have many children and that if someone comes to bewitch the child he must die. Ties a bit of guli grass around the neck of the three. Thegrass guli, tu, lebir are tied up together and two chicken feathers are stuck in. These are given to wife. As he does this he says guli will look after children and bad sickness will not come. Wife gives baby a bit of European salt. Lorna shares cup of corn with Cosmo and wife this so that he can share beer in future with people. Much laughter during whole performance. A small grindstone brought and mother grinds. This is first grinding since baby born. Beckett sweeps out the house, then sweeps compound. This so he can sweep in the future, He then hits dog. Water poured in tiny calabash by Ezra . Water thrown on roof, caught by mother in hand and fed to child so that now child can drink rainwater and not cry. Basket brought with hoe in it. Beckett gets spear and cutlass. Ezra gives Beckett spear and cutlass and wife given big carrying basket. Ezra leads Beckett and wife out of compound. Blows whistle twice. Just outside digs small hole with knife then digs other small holes, canal joining them; holes about 2 inches deep. Ezra puts a spear on each side of hoe, pours corn beer in top hole and let drain the lower one. Scrapes a bone over beer and lower hole. Beckett drinks, Wife puts drop on index finger and feeds it to baby. Guli grass put in 2 holes then they are filled up. Ezra does this and once this is done stamps on it, leaving 2 ends of guli grass sticking out. Wife and husband then stamp on hole and Ezra hits them with end of spear on forehead and chest saying bad sickness will not come to them nor child. Coral takes child big palaver as she is supposed to bring child in compound singing and she is embarrassed. Finally she comes in muttering not really singing. They send her out they say she must sing. She comes back singing this is so that child will sing well. She was given salt by mother and took it right away. She was supposed to ask for more and when she did not people laughed. Ezra ties Tu and Bol leaves on end of 2 spears. They are put in fire. This so that bumps will not appear on child's head. Ezra squeezes the leaves after they have been in fire and puts a bit of juice into mouths of husband, wife, and child head. Clifford did not appear to make Tschuk; he said he had farmwork to do.
Aug 15th -
Met Clifford on farm. He had caught 4 birds by placing gluey substance on branches of a tree which traps birds. It looks like raw rubber.

Aug 15th -

In afternoon I watched children being pulled down hill in front of Rolf house on large leaves, Neal was doing most of the pulling. I left. About 15 minutes later I heard crying. Went up Archibald was standing with large branches in hand. Gareth was crying as he had just been whipped. Archibald who had run away. Archibald had come, seen boys play They were Johnnie , Brian , Terry , Ellis and Gareth . He was angry as in sliding down hill they uprooted tin trees. He had rushed in and only caught Gareth who is about 3, Neal had told him not to flog Gareth as he was too small. Archibald got mad and hit Neal with stick. Marks visible 2 hours later. Neal had run away and there was much shouting but he had not raised a hand against Archibald . Later John said that if he had he would have had to bring Archibald a fowl. No supernatural sanction but big people would have harried Neal if he had not brought fowl. Jed has gone to stay with Mallam Taffi's mother at Ron compound. To avoid Archibald .

Aug. 15th - Tschuk medicine FOR BECKETT 's daughter

CLIFFORD goes to entrance of compound. Beckett hands him spear. Griffith says: You give spear for Tschuk, chicken for Tschuk and cornbeer for Tschuk. You will bear many male children, bad sick will run away. Clifford ties grass over entrance of compound. He spits cornbeer over grass and Beckett does same then go to spit on house repeating what they said on gate. Return to gate and rub grass over gate with index finger. Clifford says now you touch grass with Tschuk, bad sick will not come into compound. They then wait for wife and child to come out. She comes out with child and Clifford waves guli grass over 111 3 of their heads. As he waves grass he says: if witch comes, grass will kill him. Then guli grass tied in with namkol grass and in a bundle. All is repeated 3 times throughout the ritual. He then hands her grass and she drops it. Clifford gives it back saying if she forgets grass child will not die, this done 3 times. He then ends by saying if she lets someone carry baby, give him first to guli grass to carry, so if he wants to witch baby, guli grass will kill him.
At the beginning there was a reference to a chicken but his purely symbolic as Beckett only gave him chicken feathers.


Adrian very vexed. As he says he called all people to come and clean rest house and roads and Dyson compound did not come. He stomped, fussed and fumed. All young men laughed at him. He walked off in rage. Few minutes later he came back and sat in corner. At time, big people were talking about my house. Some vexed I had given 2 sh. To Adrian and nothing to Dyson. Wrong as house did not fall into Adrian 's duties.


Ezra and Njuralla were putting heads on their man drum. This must be done in bush, because if woman saw it, they would become deaf. Area in bush is surrounded by some medicine grass. No one but those knowing medicine can touch it during fixing periods. Drum half buried in ground. Skin is tied to top and rocks hang from it keeping it taut. Stakes are driven into ground and tied to skin to keep it taut. From time to time stakes driven further into ground to tighten head. Head rubbed with water. When tight enough hammer skin with little wooden spikes to hold skin on drum. The whole started by iron spike and then wooden spike hammered in. Cow skin used on woman drum. Antelope skin on man drum. If people call one and one is in bush fixing drum, one must not answer, but one can call others from here. If one does not know medicine and touches drum then the drum wont talk fine. Drum finished and taken out. Then Njuralla rubbed it with Mbam. He says that if man sleeps with girl to whom he is not married and beats drum it will not spoil after having been rubbed with Mbam. Then says when drum beats all will dance. Then rubs top with red ochre and repeats all this.

AUG. 20th - STUTTERING = Till.

No treatment, no penalty. Can easily marry even if stutters; starts about age of 3 or 4. People may laugh at you but they laugh at all infirmities. Most of those who stutter compensate by speaking slowly and distinctly. Gregory 's wife stutters as well as Warren .


Nam are the dead. When they come they make people sick. Palm oil and chicken cooked and put in basket. Ancestors come to eat it. They look like red insects with teeth. When inside they close basket and put it in fire to kill ancestors. Trouble finished. Nam is one name used for ancestors. Tschang is used for God. This is man who made world. Namso man is the one who drives away Nam. Nam punishes sin such as disobeying orders of dead people. Clifford does not know where they live nor whether they help for farm. He then told me about dead offering food to dying.

Clifford and John on SASSWOOD AND WITCHES -

If a witch agrees that he is witching someone, they ask him to make medicine to stop sick. If victim dies anyway, palaver finished. No recompense given. Only if a person admits 2 or 3 times to be witching people then maybe made to drink sasswood. If vomits palaver finished, Clifford and John say that they would not fear to drink sasswood as they know they are not witches. Frederick , Gerard, Clifford 's father all drank sasswood and lived. Shane , Toby , Lou and Clifford 's mo. all died from sasswood. These are only people from Ndiel Clifford knows who died. Clifford 's mo. witched Lou . Lou witched V. Zielinski 's children. Shane witched his own children. Toby witched Iain and his wife. These now live in Ndarrup.

Aug. 24th - Clifford on INHERITANCE

When Clifford dies Clint , Grant , Ian , V. Zielinski , Craig , Irving and Lyndon of Kara are the ones who will take his cargo. Lyndon of Kara is Irving 's real brother. He says that Frederick will not take part of cargo. Clifford says that a man called Noel Dembe was fa. of Reardon as well as of Marlon ; Noel was born in Dembe but came here to live. Clifford says Duncan not fa. of Reardon . Gawain was older than Melvin . He married at Kila for money. She was given to Dunstan of Mverrup. They had no children. This explains why Raymond 1st, then Clint now live in Mverrup.

Aug 24th - Griffith on BLOOD BROTHERHOOD.

Clifford 's ancestors drank blood with Claude of Taschemir, a hamlet of Dorofe. This was to make peace and prohibits marriage between them. Adrian 's ancestor was asked to give Claude a wife which he did. This was to close tie with Ndiel. Claude and this sister had lots of children. One was Craig 's fa. Claude 's daughter married Gil . They bore Ken and Lewis Ken sold Claude 's children for chop during war. Ken bore Lyndon , Craig , June , etc. Gawain asked Ken how he could sell Claude 's sons. Ken living in Tiker in that time. Ken then said he would live with Gawain .


Mother of Charlie was born by Veronica , Nyap's mo. Mortimer is fa. The latter wants Charlie . Susan , full sister of Veronica , and only one, want Charlie wants to marry Simon . Susan wants to take Charlie as does Mortimer . Nyap still has her. Mortimer wants cock and spear. He knows he has no right as he paid no bridewealth for Alison , mo. of Charlie . - Alison is dead. Ezra 's wife's fa. was Norman who was Veronica 's full brother. Norman had tried to exchange Veronica but she always ran away. Norman is even though a woman big person for him. When Ezra gave bridewealth it was given to Nyap. Simon gave £3 to Susan . When groom wanted money Nyap was vexed Veronica had 5 sons and 2 daughters. Susan had 2 sons and 7 daughters. Nyap vexed as Susan took all cargo for 7 girls and gave Nyap none. This is why Nyap says he wants cargo for Charlie .
Aug 24th-
Sheila , girl who used to take care of Gemma went back to Renton 's compound where her mo. lives. Clementine , her mo., had same mother with Nyap's wife. Her mo. married at Mang. She just gave her to Nyap to help with Gemma . Nyap says he has to give dashes for this.


Maku = dead people. like Nam
Makuachi = ways of cursing people, mean "you are dead person"
Kor-a-mabva = "if you go hunting you not get beef" all you do will fail. If you fail in hunting you go to big ant. It tells you what is spoiling your hunting. It may be ancestors are doing this if you have not given them enough. Or it may be big people. If you then give them some they will say blessings if beef comes, you go shoot' em!...witches. Part of witches body which stays in house. Called = Hulup. The part which goes chop man is called Nor. Same word as used for "Man". In dreams people say they dont know whether boy travels or not.


Went to Clifford 's compound at about 5. He was cooking some sap from the trees. When it boils he pours on cold water. Then twirls sticks between his palms for 10 minutes. Sticks collects solid part of mess. Soon he had a big blob of sap on end of stick. It was white. He took it out. Mixed it together with some old he already had which was brown. It was thick and spongy like rubber. He pulled it about like taffy for a while then held it and blew it in centre. It expanded like balloon. Punched hole in it. and it collapsed. Tomorrow he will cook it again. Before putting out to catch birds. 2 days ago he caught 4 this way.


He says he is 4th oldest man in Warwar. Phillip is oldest. Bartholomew is next. Neville 3rd. Oldest Mambila he knows is Albert at Kara. He had a son who died recently who was older than Frederick . Frederick says he was married when Germans came to Rudolf 's compound. They did not kill anyone, but took lots of chickens and goats. And told people to bring corn to Banyo. Clint carried some there. Frederick says that they had heard of white men from Fulani. Fulani told them and they believed it, that Europeans were dead people. Mambila feared them. Clint says he was ready to marry when Germans came. Says he brought corn to Banyo. He brought it to fortifications above Banyo.

Aug 28th Shoa NJU

Buchanan of Brett 's is showing Barry and Alexander how to make the medicine. It is medicine to chase away witches. Chicken cooked. A spear, knife and hoe are stuck into ground near pot which is cooked on 3 stones. Alexander's chicken used. Buchanan says that the 2 will not pay him to learn medicine,but John says that they will. As you cant take medicine for nothing. Women cant watch. He does not know what would happen if they did. 2 very small boys are watching. Women pass by, did not look away but did not linger.


Today big people came back from Gembu. Alkali had put 3 Tscharl people in jail for not having arrested Tagana people whom they saw moving boundary sticks. Warwar people vexed too much. They say Government stop them from fighting and then put 3 people in jail because they dont fight. Alkali says that both Tagana and Tscharl people should work farms. People are vexed about this. They say they will tell D.O.


Diarmuid s from Tiker's wife bought 2 sh.'s worth of guinea-corn from Samuel Zielinski 's wife. She sold 5 Heaping pans per shilling. This is cheap, as usually sells for 3d / a pan. Diarmuid 's wife said she bought it as their corn crop not good. John said it was to make beer, as it was cheaper than usual and a good opportunity. In market few people. Men selling rattles again there. In Ndiel Nyap's wife, Brendan 's wife and of course Rolf 's wife selling cornbeer. I bought a fine shield for 15 shillings and a spear with a hole in the middle for 15 shillings.
LELBON, JIMMY , LINUGI, compounds are all close to each other, about 1 minute's walk. About 7 minute's walk from nearest compound.
Nwena = Year.
Nyenma = is one kinship term that is sometimes heard, more than other. Guanama = sometimes heard but less frequently.


Compound Heads living in NDIEL whose kinship with local Man is through females:
1/ Ron : his mother was of Frederick 's Man. Father mother exchange marriage.
2/ Robin : his mother born in Ndiel. Bridewealth marriage.
3/ Nyap: his mother married Theobald of Man-Gembersi. Bridewealth marriage.
4/ Garth : his mother's mother of Frederick 's family. His mother lived in Ndiel. Bridewealth Marriage.
5/ Herbert : lives in compound where his mother's mother born. Marriage exchange.
Compounds head living in TIKER because of female ties:
1/ Karel : his father's mother was from here. Her marriage broken as her father's fa. gave nothing for her.
2/ Henry : His fa. came to wife town to avoid illness. His fa. Told Henry to remain after his death.
3/ Elton : lives with mo's family to take care of bros.
4/ Gilmour : His mo. came from NDIEL. Man-Gembersi.
5/ Lorcan : came to live here when fa. died.
6/ Cahill : his fa.'s family took no care of his mo. when fa. died. So his mo. came back.
7/ Deverell : Followed maternal 1/2 brother. His maternal 1/2 brother followed his fa. who was Man-Mbien-gui.
8/ Ned : His fa's mo. came from TIKER.
9/ Nick : Mo of Nick 's fa. from TIKER.
Compound heads living in TIGUL of female ties.
1/ Gilbert : His fa. followed his real female sibling who was married in TIGUL to Bonar
2/ Marmaduke : Came to live with fa.'s mo's bro's son as he was sick at Mbar.
3/ Niall : Came to live with his mo's family when his fa. died.
4/ Cedric : His fa. came to live with mo's family.
5/ Hartley : Lives with mo's family; reason unknown.
7/ Rhodes : reason unknown, relationship unknown.


Market cycles
Warwar, Gembu, Mbanga, Kabri, Vokude, Bang, Yambap, Ndarrup, Landenya and Mburr, Ninge, Dorofe, Kara.


Names of the main medicines
TSCHUK probably the most important








<H4>TSCHUKNORTSCHOKE is the name used for a man who has the medicine. The man with the medicine is the first to plant guinea-corn. The next day is a day of rest for everyone. He is the first to eat of the new guinea-corn. This he obtains form his own farm. No one can leave the village for four days after it is planted, nor can any stranger sleep in the village for this period, nor can any food be sold to strangers. No crops to be taken out of the village. No copulation between unmarried peoples, but permissible if spouses. NORTSCHOKE is the first to eat guinea-corn with a knife. If any of these rules are broken, the offender must present a fowl to the TSCHUK man. The day after the guinea-corn is planted all of the people go hunting. The game is all brought to him, before being shared. The stomach, head, and heart are given to him. These he cooks on the stones of Tschuk. He blesses all of these contributions and tells all of the animals to come to the village so that they can be caught by villagers. He calls for only good girls to come to the village as wives of the inhabitants. He asks that bad girls should not come, nor should bad animals come. When Europeans come they should bear good news, and not have evil thoughts. The horns of the killed animals are put into the medicine hut. He is the first to store guinea-corn in his store house. After all of the guinea-corn is stored he announces that a special dinner must be made for the Tschuk medicine otherwise the crops will not be blessed (This year the dinner was not held). Three days before the feast, all of the men go hunting, the bag is kept for three days until the market day on which feast is to be held, then all animals brought to him. All of the heads of the animals are put into basket and eaten by girls who will marry outside of the village. The horns from the head of the animals shot are filled with corn beer and drunk by the TSCHUK men. Again they make a request for good animals to come to the village, as well as good girls, etc. They also ask for peace to rule in the village. Actually they do this every time that they pray at rituals.
Most Important Tschuk men
Bartholomew Tigul Adrian Ndiel Cecil Tiker and possibly Harry Tscharl Clifford , Christopher have it too.

INCEST Misc. Notes for Notebook not yet typed

John knows a man who lives with his full sister. They are from Mang. They eloped to Kabri. Stayed about six months. Came back and big people were very angry, but could do nothing. Have 4 children and none died. Oldest is now 9. The two were orphans, man who had custody of them was a younger sibling of parent, father I think.
John says that he has never heard of man sleeping with sister in Warwar, however he says that he believes that it happens frequently. In Warwar they say if you marry your sister children will be weak.


Father's mother of the girl came from here, they don't know her name. Mother of Roger s father was the woman. She bore the father Ferdinand in Tscharl. Ferdinand was Roger 's father. Archibald s wife is Roger s real sister, that is the wife he got by exchange. Archibald and Dora (Roger s real sister) delivered Suzette who was Marcus<!-- Person#1760-->'s wife. The big people very vexed when the two married, but Marcus gave cock and spear which Archibald took. Three children born, all died. She then stopped conceiving. When she stopped her mother said that she should marry another man and conceive with him. Married at Mang and did not conceive. Now sleeps at Archibald s compound, Marcus is trying to marry her again. The only reason marriage was allowed is that Marcus 's father not from here.

{QV section in Marriage notes dated 3 Sept ff}


Before the courts, big people would settle palavers. If Dickson used Thor 's farm what would happen? Said in old times they planted bitter leaf trees to mark boundaries so they had no palaver. If in past there was dispute between his family and Frederick 's Cosmo for his group, & Chris 's group would settle it. Said that in old times there were fights between Tiker and Ndiel, mainly over women. Big people from Tscharl, for example, the old Warwar, or may be even big people from Ndiel or Tiket would stop it. Cosmo who had Nya medicine might stop it. The grass he would bring to stop it was Shoa; as soon as this grass was seen the fight would have to stop. If Ndiel fought with other towns then all Warwar must help them. In case of war between Warwar and Vokude, the Nyenyanyu whose mother came from Vokude and fa. from Warwar would try & settle it. He would act in conjunction with a Vokude resident whose mo. from Warwar and fa. from Vokude. This type of person would be able to travel safely between the two towns. If your mo came from Vokude you might go to the war, but would be careful not to hurt any Vokude resident even if he were not your brother. They all agreed fighting is bad.


Says that 1 of the reasons for war was that a person would go to a strange town and ask them to fight his own people as they would not give him a girl to exchange. One could get this support from any town in which one has friends and/or relatives. They might also fight over farm boundaries. Stealing a wife did not bring about a war. The 2 men might fight but not bring a war. If man from Vokude stole Clint wife his family would try and catch them on the road but once they got to Vokude they would not go to get her.
When wars were common Vokude farms and Warwar farms were separated by wide no-man lands

Sept 9th CADOGAN on medicines - explanation of medicine I stole. -

I asked him why he took anti-theft medicine off his firewood and then put it back. Says that somebody else took the medicine off firewood. Must be Nyenyanyu as only they can do it without getting sick. Since no one has gotten sick this is proof positive. Was very surprised that no one had stolen wood.
Sept 11th TSCHARL-
At Harry s' we found them cooking a chicken. Hubert gave Hal this chicken as Hubert 's son Ken married Hal 's daughter.

Sept 11th - MAKA CULT

Ian says Sylvester was leader of Maka cult in Warwar. It came from French side, from Ribado, at about time Mr. Donger came. If people believe in it, it would drive away Fulani and Europeans.
Sinclair said that he had grass that put in a dead man mouth would bring him back to life. When a man died at Tiker and he was called for, said he had lost the grass. The Fulani heard of this Maka and sent Police and messengers to Mbamga. The chief there pointed out the ring leaders and the police beat them in public. They forbade the beating of drums to the Maka beat. After that Maka died out.


Today as on other Gembu days of the last few weeks, there has been corn-beer for sale. This can be attributed to the large supply of corn available and much leisure. Though normally people would not work on Gembu market day, even during busy period, they would be bringing in firewood, grinding corn, etc.. These tasks are nowadays accomplished on regular workdays.

Sept 15th

While going past Frederick 's house, the latter asked John to come in and eat. John asked whether there was any meat. This is not a rude question. If one knows there is meat in the house it is alright to ask whether it is being served, with the obvious intention of refusing if person says no meat is being eaten. John knew that meat was available as Aylmer had yesterday brought two cows legs from Gembu Petil, to sell. Aylmer said that his fa-in-law had bought the dead cow for £3/10.

Sept 15th - In most compounds girls were preparing strings they would dye later and wear for Titeng.

We came to Clifford 's compound. & Nathan was in process of making medicine, was standing at gate of compound. Had a pullet tied on a bunch of leaves. There was a spear stuck in ground & a hoe. Clifford was talking. After each statement he stopped & Nathan brought knife close to chicken throat saying: "Si si si" After his statements Raymond talked. Then Clifford 's wife from Kabri. This medicine is to stop witches & to bring peace to compound. Clifford 's wife was vexed as people had been saying that she had given Clifford medicine so that Clifford would love her and not his other wife. She said that if this was true Shoa should get her. Frederick came: said death was a bad thing & not to talk too much of medicine or they might kill people. The talk finished. Nathan cuts of pullet head, waves body in front of the 3 houses & then buries it at entrance of compound. Then Clifford brings burnt peace of wood. Nathan sets fire to dry grass and rubs it over place where chicken is buried. Then puts out fire by rubbing grass on ground, medicine finished. Clifford . offers Nathan 3d. with a chicken feather. Nathan says chicken is too small, and Clifford offers him 9d. Nathan says it's too small but takes it. In past chickens often given to pay medicine man. Now money but often with a chicken feather and the amount is call a "chicken".
Name of medicine is Shoa medicine. Clifford says that he uses Ngam at Mbar to find out who should make medicine. He told him to use Nathan . The Ngam told him that the cause of his illness of the past few weeks was due to witches. He did not ask who bewitched him, Also said that his wife from Yambap wants to go to new man. When she told him this it was bad as this may cause witches to come so this is another reason to make the medicine. Brendan is the man who is trying to get her. Brendan told her to go to her fa. & he would go and get her. Clifford not vexed as he neither slept with her nor stole her. If he did either of these he would be angry.

Sept 8th 1953 PALAVER BETWEEN CAHILL ' AND MAREK 's families. (hypothetical case)

The big man of Frederick family would approach the big man of Paine family & inform him that a member of the latter group had stolen some property. The latter would tell the thief to return it. If the article had been sold thief family would help him replace it. In old days the 2 groups might have fought and the winner would get his way, but they would take care not to kill each other. Ndiel and Tscharl people would come, stop fight and hear the case and give a decision. If Frederick 's family stole from K. They would take sticks and shields and fight but not kill each other. The native chief would stop the fight. Before the time of native chiefs the big people of Tscharl and Tigul would stop it. All Tiket people would join K group and Adrian family would help Frederick . Tscharl young men would help Tiket and Tigul would help Ndiel.
K once saw this sort of fight occur. The people had drunk a lot of corn-beer. A man from Tiket pushed a man from Ndiel. The fight lasted for some time. A native chief from the French side stopped it. The fighting was spasmodic and at most times it was safe to go visit other hamlets.


Went around the town. Most of people were weeding the guinea-corn or bringing in groundnuts. Not a single person in Frederick compound. Clifford and others had gone to farm. Raymond & wife were in the compound. All women of Archibald 's compound were on farm except for one wife. As were Roland and Neal . We sat in Nyap's compound. Nyap's wife was helping Gemma . They are already teaching her to take care of children even though she is only about 3. When Amos was put on Nyap's wife lap Gem tried to push him off and showed other signs of jealousy. The group reaction was to show Gem how to take care of the baby herself. Nyap's mo.'s female sibling has made a small carrying basket for Gem and she goes with it on her back. This is an exact replica of the adult model in miniature. They even put a little calabash in it so that she pretends she is going to get water with it. Little children are set little tasks about the age of 2. In play far from the supervision of their elders they are often seen attempting to perform adult tasks.


You cant drink from one cup with fa. or mo. even if you make a payment. One cannot drink with mo's bro. but John thinks that if he paid, he might. If he pays he can drink with Johnson . You cant drink with your fa's bro whether older or younger than you. One cant drink with fa's or mo's sister after marriage but can before. The rule is that one cannot drink with any full or 1/2 sibling of one's parents, neither can one drink with any grand parents.
Sept 15th -
Lorrie is a recent resident in Nathan 's compound. Comes from Mang. Lorrie married Piers 's real sister. Came to live with her because his wife was sick in Mang. Will probably stay a long time, they will ask big ant before he goes

Sept 15th - ADULTERY

Learnt today from Ian that Ron had been caught 3 times in adultery. First time in Gembu; 2nd in Vokude; This palaver settled for 2 fowls. People of Vokude now ask him to pay 5 goats. Ron says he will not as the woman was married by bridewealth. Does not know whether husband will try & bewitch him. 3rd time with Lorcan 's wife, in Warwar. He gave 1 chicken, Lorcan agreed and they made the medicine to finish quarrel. This material was checked right with Ron on Sept 16th.

Sept 16th - TITENG

Cornbeer cooked on Kara market. Will be drunk in Warwar next market day. Danced and Sang on this day. Tigul comes to Ndiel as well as many strangers on Warwar market day. On Gembu market Ndiel people go to Tigul. On Gembu market day they dance in the bush. When they come back they bring grass, wave it and shout. This drives cough to the west. Women also go to dance in the bush.
Sept 16th -
The inverted pots on roof of houses are for small birds to live in. Should the owner of

Sept 17th - DRUM MAKING

Clifford was making a drum when I went by his compound. Was about 20 yds in the bush. The technique was the same as for making the big man drum, we saw being made some time ago. Said that if one did not have the medicine and hit the drum while making it, he would become deaf. The place was encircled by long grass as on the previous occasion. Was making it alone this time as it was a small drum. Harold 's fa. showed him the medicine but he learnt to make the drum by watching older people.


People who are called to Tscharl in an attempt to raise £10 fine for Obidiah . From Ndiel Frederick and Archibald , from Tiket Cahill ; from Tigul no one. Rathbone told them about the fine: £10. Roland said that Tcharl would give £7. The other hamlets £1 each.

Sept 17th - TITENG

Clifford said that the medicine for Titeng was to drive away coughs but this is a lie. Medicine did not make cough go away, nor had it ever done so.
Sept 18th -
Raymond was cutting sticks in his compound. Said he was not well. That sticks told him to make "Shoa" medicine. Had not yet asked who was to make the medicine.


Frederick today told Adrian and Archibald to come. Decided to give the money they had been paid for resthouse work and other Government work as their contribution towards Obidiah 's fine. Adrian , Archibald and Frederick were main participants. Robin also came but did not say much. Was all done very quietly. People are very vexed, that Obidiah was put in jail, and about the fine. They say that the Fulani are very unjust. Frederick keeps all the hamlet money earned by work for government in his medicine house.

Sept 18th - WARWAR CASE

Warwar says when Tangana people swore to the bell about farm palaver they put Warwar in jail because Alkali said Warwar told lie. Did not let Warwar swear the bell. Alkali told them they had to pay £10. Some Fulani told that it was a bad thing to come and tell me things. Says that Tangana people were afraid and that is why they swore to the bell one of the witnesses from the village of Warwar said that Warwar had told him to move boundary posts as he was afraid of Alkali. This was Ernest . Ernest was not asked to swear bell. Mallam Bakari was vexed because they put Warwar in jail. He went and told D.O. D.O. Told them to take Warwar out of jail. They put Ernest Montague and Rufus in prison & they are still there. This they did because they pull out boundary markers.

D.O. Talks of Tangana Farm Palaver Sept. 19th

The boundary was drawn by Mathews 5 years ago. It was not a farm boundary but a village boundary. He says that there are twelve disputed farms and that according to recent judgement they can be used by either village. As Tangana people planted last batch of TIN they should be able to plant crops there this time. He says as far as he is concerned palaver is settled and no further action will be taken. He is not aware of the tension. Claims that Tangana people have been farming there as long as Tscharl people. He says Warwar not allowed to take oath on bell as in Muslim law only one person allowed to take oath. D.O. not satisfied with present Adm., but does not know what can be done about it, or how it can be improved. He is aware of many injustices. Has asked me to buy artifacts for museum, such as spears, small beer baskets, horns etc.
Sept 19th. Fuss between Adrian and Frederick 's group.
Adrian said people from Ian 's area were not willing to help him in R.H. work and did not obey him. Frederick got very angry at this and said not true, was angry at slur on kinship group.
All big people, the Kassala from Ndarup, Mverup, Mang and Warwar were joined in Archibald s compound. Roland (Kassala of Tscharl) talked for ten minutes of Tangana farm palaver. He said that he wanted fixed boundary. All agreed. Kassala from Ndarrup talked and agreed with Roland . Adrian and Bevis agreed. All repeated what Roland had said..
Sept.20th. Meeting with D.O.
Roland talked for Tscharl. All Tscharl people said that they had planted TIN trees as well as some people from other hamlets. Hearing calm. Darius said that they must let Tangana people use the twelve farms. D.O. Then talked of coffee experiment which was greeted with no enthusiasm. Roland did 90% of talking for Tangana farms. People from other hamlets said nothing except murmur words of assent to Roland s statements.

Sept. 20th. Titeng

A lot of strangers here, from Ndarrup, Mverrup, Mang, Vokude. The big men from these three came for D.O. meeting, but many young men came for Titeng. Big men spent time before meeting at Archibald s, and afterwards at Adrian s and Frederick s. Adrian had Jake bring corn beer for them as well as supplying some of his own. About 80% of the men who danced had newly dyed their loin cloths. Only a few wearing European cloth. None wearing Mambila cloth have it with old dye, that is to say all wearing such cloth have it newly died. Started dancing at Brett s, then went to Jake s and then Ezra s. At beginning of the dance Harold and Gregory had horns made of bamboo. They sang old men's songs, surrounded by younger men. Young men formed a circle around the two. Each time song finished, the young would fling out their arms and shout thus driving the old men's songs away. They do this so that the Titeng songs will sound better. This is definitely a young men's party, the old neither dance nor made medicine; About two hundred and fifty to 300 young men and women dancing. A few old women danced as did Gregory . Majority of big men paid no attention to the activities. During most of the afternoon they danced at dancing field of Ndiel. Tigul, Ndarrup, Mverrup, Vokude, Mang, Kabri, Mbamga and other towns represented. Charles had made beer for his official friend (BIL) so the party adjourned to Ian 's part of the town for the night. Dance went on all night. Tigul was supposed to make corn beer but did not so the dance will not go there but stay in Ndiel.

Sept.22 Titeng

Songs sung at Titeng differ from others only in rhythm. The words are same or can be the same. No special songs. Old man songs are wordless and meaningless. These are sung to the special rhythm and a for only a few minutes before Titeng begins. Only time that they are sung. Several people have told me that Titeng is small boys thing which means that it is of interest only to young men. During the third day of Titeng cough is said to be driven away. The coughs are driven to the West as are old men's songs. The word Titeng comes from the bamboo whistles which are also called Titeng. Yamkor is the name of old men's songs. Only sung at this time. They begin in Ezra s compound because he has GIR medicine (this is the same as Archibald 's fence medicine). Yamkor sung also during day coughs driven away. Tigul said that though normally they make beer for this feast, they did not this time, but would make it for Kati. Mbarr makes first Titeng, followed by Mbwanga {Mbamga?}, Yambap, Shova (part of Vokude) Vokude and Warwar. This is last. Tangana made it some time ago as did Ninge and Kara. Other towns don't make it. Normally Kati danced after coughs driven away, but as there was no beer left all people went to Tiket and Tscharl, this applies as well to Ndiel people. Shortage due to Tiguls failure to make beer

Sept 16th Johnson has the following medicines:

"Jur" med. The one Archibald has in Ndiel. Andrew had it before him. Rudolf had it before Andrew . Rudolf and Andrew bought it from Aziz . Aziz from Tiket. Aziz was relative of Rudolf .
"Yung" - Andrew gave it to Johnson on same day as he got "Jur". Rudolf gave it to Andrew "Tu" - Adrian 's fa., Cosmo , gave to Johnson ; he paid a dog, a hoe, and 3 chickens. Some of this is secret and he wont talk about it. When a man bears a child, they bring a chicken to Tu man and he makes medicine. It is only done if child is sick. It is to chase away the sickness. The Tu man makes a string and the child wears it on his neck. Johnson does not think that dead people help in curing in this particular case. Others in Tiket make Tu medicine also. Adrian makes it in Ndiel.

Sept 23 John says

These are all important medicines. Jir, Yung, Ngan and Nam. All of the above but Yung have special Jujus. Nyam Juju is so strong that unless one has the medicine one cannot see the Juju, the same applies to Tu medicine. The Juju for Ngan is called Bvur. Deverell Tiket has Yung, Nyap Tiket and Adrian have Ngan. Nam causes peoples bellies to swell if they steal. Tschuk is big medicine without Juju. Kurum is also big medicine.
Jir can only be given to sons by exchange marriage or real brothers. Yung can be given to anyone as can Ngan, Nam, Kurum. Tschuk and Tu can only be given to sons of each marriage or to real brothers.
Sept 23.
Woman drum= Djua Me Man drum=djua tila or Djua Tim. Small log drum=Kwinjeng. Snare Drum= Dang or Djua Dang Small arm drum = Tigul Rattles = Bati
Whistles with man's face= Tang
Rubbing sticks Tscaquar
Juju whistle = Tekshoa (Only owner and Nyena Nyu can use)
Talking whistle = Jemi
Big horns= Lurup
Smoking pipe=Tol
Twin pipe=Tol Felipi
European pip=Boti
Bag carried by men=Kall
Big back basket =Sa mal
Small girls basket=Sa deri
Walking stick=Ku

Sept. 23

Ron says that his father planted the palm wine trees that he now owns. He says that once he, Garth , Charles and Ian once lived on the main path between Clifford 's compound and Finlay s. They moved because many people were sick there. Previously R.H. had been where Ian lives. There was a fairly long period where Ian s area unoccupied. This was when Dunger or Ahrens here. They moved R.H. down when and because Theobald was chief and he wanted it near his compound.
Clifford says that if one has more than one wife it is usual for one to do cooking in a day and have the other eat with her. His wife from Kabri does this but the one from Yambap does not. Wife from Yambap jealous and trying to make trouble. Obviously the one from Kabri's is Clifford s favourite and he shows it, this aggravates the situation.

Sept. 24. Medicines by Frederick

Jir medicine can only be given to family member. Yung can be given to anyone. Tschuk only to family member. Cannot give Tschuk or Jir to a son of bridewealth marriage. One can give it to sister's family member. Cannot give Tschuk or Jir to a son of bridewealth marriage. One can give it to sister's son if not of exchange marriage. He gave it to Roland , Obidiah , Rathbone and Ron . His father gave it to him. As long as he is alive Ron can't use it but Rathbone and Rolland can as they are not of the same hamlet.
Sept. 24th. John regarding Archibald s kinship.
John says that Archibald cannot be of Adrian s family or he would have Tu medicine. Tu medicine requires that a net be put on Medicine (Nyup) house. V. Zielinski says that if Archibald dies Thor , Ethan and V. Zielinski will get most, Frederick would divide. When Lance dies Aylmer , Mbon and Petros (the man whose children were taken away and I had reinstated) will get most. If any man dies of Frederick s group, he would divide, but take only a little himself. He would divide in order to keep the peace.
Sept.25.MEMINBILLA is the group that inherits from one. GELABILLA includes all of ones family. MEMINBILLA = Me=mother, men=in, billa=our. Father's brothers sons and daughters are in your Meminbilla whether marriage by exchange or not. If your father's sister is married by exchange then children belong to Memin also if married by bridewealth. Mo's brother's children the same whether Exchange or bridewealth. Same for Mother's sis children.
Sept. 22.
One of Nichol 's (Theobald s real brother) came for Titeng. He lives in Mang with mother. Doesn't want to live here as someone has to help his mother who is very old.
Sept. 23. Clint had medicine made for wife.
Ngur medicine was made for wife. This is medicine to be made for spears before hunting and also put on farms to protect against stealing. His wife had taken something from another farm and had been caught by medicine. Cadogan first made it but it was no good. So Jackson who is classificatory brother of wife was asked to make it. Clint asked no oracle who was to make medicine or what medicine to make since wife confessed stealing.
Sept. 23.
Knox s wife is preparing corn beer for next market day. Jeremy brought almost a full basket of corn flour from one of John 's farms in Mang. Theresa had decided to make corn beer for sale. Today she cooked corn in a pot over fire. It is placed dry in the pot and stirred. Only about three tassas are put in at any one time. 13 tassas were used in all having a market value of about 3 shillings and three pence. 61/2 tassas of guinea-corn will be used which has a market value of 1sh and 4d. Corn 4 tassas to a shilling market value, Guinea-corn 5 tassas for shillings. Result of manufacture was 5 jugs.
Sept. 23.
Today Warren shouted GULLACHI (your head) at Roland in play. Roland said that he was going to flog Warren for this and was very angry. Warren nervous and stayed around my house part of the afternoon and later went to Vokude to avoid being beaten at night.
Sept. 26. John
Johnson s grandfather is in Neil s family. He stole Rudolf s mother. John says that Elton will get most of Johnson s cargo. If Lance (FREDERICK ) dies Aylmer , Mbon, Petros (Dorofe) would get most. Langley will get a little as Flora was Frederick s sister and married by exchange.
Sept. 26. Gerard says.
She first said that MEMINBILLA means that one has same mother with another.
When M. Taffis father died, Frederick divided the estate.
When Gawain died, Craig divided the cargo not Frederick . Angus (Craig 's father) was a member of this Man.
Aylmer says that Man Gamsi is divided into two MEMINS. Within the MEMINS the cargo is divided by the biggest man and the biggest part taken by him since he gives largest amount of bridewealth.
Sept. 26 Adrian says.
Members of Adrian 's MEMIN. Jake , Nathan , Robin , Clint , Finlay , Dyson , Gregory , Rodney , Cadogan , Harold . All of these would get a part of his cargo. Archibald not in his MEMIN. He says Archibald of same MAN but not of MEMIN. He says Archibald of MAN only because their ancestors were friends not because of kinship, hence they cannot marry each others daughters, but they do not inherit from each other. This friendship developed through Adrian 's father wanting to go live where mission now stands, which he did for awhile. This was Thor 's Archibald s fathers land.
Sept. 26. Big medicines given by Adrian .
Tschuk, Tu, Bel (or Yir) and Shoa.
Adrian says that he can only give Tschuk to people in his MEMIN not to strangers. The same applies to Bel (Yir) and Tu.
Archibald has given Harold , Adrian and Abraham Jir medicine. When Archibald dies Adrian will make it. If Adrian dies Harold will make Tschuk medicine, Archibald has not got it since he isn't in Memin.
Sept. 26. Johnson says.
Renton is his relative but not of same MEMIN. Johnson says Elton , Nyap and Marcus , S. Zielinski and Ibrahim are all of Memin. Johnson says if one has two wives and lots of offspring the children of one mother may consider themselves distinct from the other and form a separate Memin. Man Ndua, Man Max and Man Getschang are really separate Memins of same Man.
Sept. 26. MEMINBILLA. Cahill says.
He and Cecil and Diarmuid are of same MEMIN as well as Meiron (Tiket farms) Jem (farms) and Jeremy farms) Hal , Percy , Haldane , Jarod (Matthew full sib) the other Memin of Man Neil . Pearson and Lorcan form their own. Johnson is older than Cahill but Rogers is second oldest of Tiker.
Sept. 26.
Johnson was angry as he had asked Adrian for palm wine, as he was going to his palms. Adrian said that it was already sold. Later Johnson learned this was not the case.
John had been asked by V. Zielinski to come to his farm and drink palm wine. By time John came it was gone. He learned that Obidiah had come and drunk it with V. Zielinski , his wife and Obidiah . The latter had been told that it was available by Ian .
Sept. 28. Dispenser came. All scraped off top layer of compound for fear that he would find them dirty. He stopped for ten or fifteen minutes at Lance s, then went to Tscharl to be entertained with wine and beer by Obidiah .
Sept. 28. Frederick on Memin.
He was vague on subject. Members of Frederick s Memin. Charles , Mallam Taffi, Frederick , Ron (as he is son to Frederick 's sister) Rupert (Kabri) Garth , Martin both of these are sons of his sister) Kornelius and Alwyn (his real brothers living in Dorofe).
Memin of Parker Andrei , Zielinski , Parker , Clint l (Mverrup Andrei s brother) Clifford , Graeme (son of their sisters).
Sept. 28. Clifford says.
When his father died June divided the cargo. June is dead. June 's father and Gawain had father and mother. Frederick supervised the division. June was a woman she was chosen as she was the biggest person of the Memin. Clifford 's Memin; Andrei , Parker , Zielinski , Clifford , Davey , Damon , Kevin (Kara)
Sept. 28. Hugo on MEMIN
Oswald , Ned , Soames , Renton , Ritchie , Bartlett , Hugo , Gilmour , Xavier , Craig , Henry , Jason , Quentin , Karel , if any of these died he would get some of the cargo. Quentin and Jason Henry 's compound. Xavier Gilmour s compound. Ritchie Bartlett 's compound. Moses Soames of Ned s compound. Donald 's now on Tiket farms. At Gembu there is Evelyn . At Vokude there are two Tarrant and Taggart . Evelyn 's mother is from this MEMIN. Tarrant 's father was Qua from this group. Taggart 's mother from this group. Mother of Evelyn was Jon 's sibling. Qua went to live in Vokude his wifes place when he was sick here. Gua's father was Evelyn . Taggart s mother was daughter of Ned .
Rodney came to make Shoa medicine for Nathan . Nathan consulted his own tarantula. He has this medicine and the big ant.
Sept. 29. Deverell on Memin.
Only Winston and Willard would get his cargo. He works Be's farms. Be was his real brother. All of his brothers are dead. His father went to French Side.
The first time that I have seen big man lick the soup pot. Deverell did this in spite of the fact that his son Winston and John had eaten with him.
Sept.29 Kati.
The young boys decide where to hold it first. They decide the last day of Titeng. Kabri did Kati first. Then any town can hold it. It is always done after weeding finished or nearly finished.
Sept 29-30. Kati
We arrived in Tiker about ten. No one but Tiker people. Danced until about three. The Tscha{??Tscharl??} came carrying long staves. Then affair speeded up. Later Ndiel and Tigul came. Men formed a big circle and girls danced inside it. Some men came and danced with them. Then Nyap Tiker who was the biggest man there asked for silence. After about five minutes he got it. He asked why Tscharl, Tigul and Ndiel people didn't come earlier, he was vexed at this. Clifford said that the reason that they didn't come was that cough was troubling the people. Nyap asked why Tscharl men didn't bring their women. Tscharl did not answer. He said to sing loud so that Nam would not spoil the dance, Nam is the dead people. Ndiel people did not bring staves though they could of if they had wished. Dancing stopped at six A.M. The real reason that Ndiel, Tigul and Tscharl people did not come earlier was that there was no corn beer..
Sept.30. At Clifford s compound where John 's wife was selling corn beer, Clint , Clifford , Dyson , Jacob Nyap and John 's father were drinking palm wine. They had set up some palm leaves with snail shells. This was fake medicine so that passers by would not ask for any palm wine. Towards the end they gave some to Dyson s wife. Frederick s wife was very angry as they did not give her any. This practice of putting up fake medicine is fairly common to protect ones drinking from others.
Oct 1.
If one shoots an animal or ones dog catches it the head must be cooked outside, only the hunter and his full siblings, of either sex can eat it..
Oct.1. Nyap's wife calls Clifford wife Guanama but this is just in play
October 1.
Clifford and Andrei were making medicine this morning when we went by. They had cooked a chicken and were eating it at about 8:30 A.M.. Clifford said that when your father dies you must sleep on the ground for one night. Others take ashes and throw it on your head. Then you must give a chicken to all of the big people. This Clifford and Andrei did not do. This is why they are sick. They cookedaa fowl today and gave to Archibald , he gave them some. They gave it to him as he has Jir medicine and Jir medicine man must be given a fowl when your father dies. (Apparently this is only Warwar custom as John knows nothing of it). The name of the medicine is Tschor Karkilla (no reference to place name). Tonight Clifford will kill goat. He will send some to all of the big people of Ndiel, Tigul, Tscharl and Tiket. This is done at death so that the sender will be able to share in funeral feasts of people in the village.
Oct.1. Married woman cannot drink corn beer if they have a baby in arms and are not pregnant. But if they are pregnant or their child is old enough to be weaned, then they can. Knox s wife was drinking hot corn beer today, but Clifford s wife couldn't.
Oct1. Kati. People who went to Tiker for Kati from Ndiel and other places.
>From Ndiel, males: Clifford , Mbon, Aidan , Nigel , Russ , Ralph (Adrian 's compound.)
Women: Coral , Joyce , Lily , Lorna .
TIGUL: Males: Jakob , Owen , Jason , Artie , Rory , Carmichael , Avelino ,
Females: Hazel , Anna , April , Judith , and another whose name is forgotten.
I did not get the names of the people who came from TSCHARL.
Oct 1st - KATI
During Kati they stop the drum beating, and Nyap Tiker asked who would take next Kati. Ndiel said that they would. But Tscharl said they want it too. So Ndiel agreed.
He first asked what was sickness that troubles him. Then what medicine to use. The stick told him he must have someone make Shoa medicine for him. He would not say what medicine he asked about before Shoa prescribed. He then asked Tu to make it. First asked whether Archibald should: answer No. Then ask about Dyson . Again No. Adrian ?-No. and finally Rodney - Yes. He did not ask what makes him sick.
He went to Vokude to consult Big ant about illness. 1st thing he said was: 1) Big ant, if I am to get well quick, catch stick. If I to get worse, catch stone" - Ant caught stone. 4 times in a row. 2) he asked whether if he makes medicine he would get well? - ant said yes 3 times. 3) He asked whether people were bewitching him? - ant said no, twice. 4) first he asks whether he should use Ngan medicine? - ant says no. 5) Ngan shoa?- No. 6) Nyan medicine? -No. 7) ant says because he sinned against big people. 8) Asked whether he was a witch? - No. 9) As he Clifford and his sibling all ill, he asks whether it was the fact that they vexed with each other that makes them sick? - No. 10) When fa. died big people came and danced juju for him. They did not cook chicken or goat. Was this making them sick? - Yes.
This is why they gave chickens to Archibald . And will tomorrow give goat. Pieces will go to: Neville , from Tigul, Cecil and Johnson from Tiket, Rathbone , from Tscharl; and Adrian and Archibald from Ndiel. They chose these among all big people, as they could not feed them all. He went to Vokude for big ant as he did not want to do it here. He paid six d.


Nam = dead people. Same thing as Tschang. Use of term Tschang for god is result of mission. Ancestors make crops grow and people sick. Either mo. or fa. ancestors can make one sick irrespective of where one lives.
If Adrian were being made ill by Gembersi, he would call adult male members of man together to make medicine. This is called Nam medicine. Fufu and chicken would be given to ancestors as this done whenever medicine made. You don't discriminate between mo. and fa. relatives when sacrificing chicken and fufu. John says he thinks only relatives can eat the food at this time. During making of Nam medicine, the ancestors are told to forget those who are still alive and not make trouble for them.
If John flogged his son the dead might make the son sick. The big ant would tell him why son ill. He would then call a person with Nam medicine who would drive the dead away. Harold has Nam medicine. If a stranger flogs a child, child wont get ill.

Oct 2nd - SIMON 's marriage

Simon 's new wife Charlie came last night. Was supposed to come today. Clint went to her compound and told her to come at night. Bridal party went directly from Nyap's compound with no stops. The only criticism I have heard so far is that the chicken feathers they were given to eat palmwine with were bad. When asked they said palmoil was good. Drove away a small boy who came to house. It is not illegal that such a person comes in but the girls did not want him.
Oct 2nd - Raymond and Clifford give goat.
Adrian asked whether Cadogan and been invited to goat giving. Raymond said No. Went to get him After hours.of waiting and much calling Rathbone , Cahill , Carmichael , Adrian , Frederick had come. They asked where Archibald was. Frederick said he had gone to farm & had said they should make medicine without him. Clint and Ron wandered in. Raymond and Clifford brought the cooked goat and many rounds of fufu into the centre of the compound. Frederick goes over to supervise division of goat. Raymond came with a small knife, but Frederick sent him away as this is a knife that is used to cut sticks to foretell future. Such a knife must never be used on a goat. They finally used a machete.
First portion given to Adrian , 2nd to Cahill ; N. said: did not know why was given to him so it was explained amid much laughter. A means of getting Clifford and Raymond to explain their sin.
3rd portion to Rathbone ; 4th to Carmichael ;
Clint , Adrian and Ron immediately begin to eat; give some to Frederick . Raymond came near to where Adrian , Clint and Ron were sitting. Frederick vexed as he thought Raymond begging. But Raymond said that Ron had called him. Adrian gives some of his to: Brian and Osborne . Finlay & Raymond were there but not asked to eat. All of the goat is eaten at once, except a small part that Clifford took to his house. Rathbone did not eat any as he has leprosy and lepers cannot either eat goat or European salt. Adrian and Frederick say that Clifford and Raymond had better make corn beer if they have enough food; if they don't the illness may not end quickly nor will their crop grow well. Cahill suggested that Ian also should make corn-beer but Frederick said he would not as he was Christian.
Part given to Clifford was from Rathbone . He gave him 1/2 of his portion. Rest divided among big people. Clifford explained the division: one leg given to Tiker, one to Ndiel, one front leg given to Tscharl and other to Tigul. This good evidence that its not matter of kinship but rather a community ritual. Division is between hamlets, even though only 1 or 2 men represented some of the hamlets.
The delay of about 3 hours exasperated even Clifford and Raymond .


At 2:30 pm, the bride's party asked for money to wash, and Simon said there was none. After a long discussion, was agreed that a hoe be given. Hoe will be returned. 1st wife of Simon is carrying the messages. Seems agreeable to do this. Simon says they did not give him a chicken bone to chew as he is the bro. of many of the brides maids.


While waiting for the big people to come for goat Clifford , John and I talked about this. Robin is a skilled practician. This done at about age of 10. Elias has been done. Done during dry season, Clifford and John had never heard of a non-circumcised male over about 13. If boy refuses, other young men will laugh at him. Would be impossible for a non-circumcised person to get married. If one is not circumcised one cant bear any children as "juice has no power". Ethan was surprised to hear that I was not cut. He said that I would be when I went back to England. I said "No". Said then I would have no children. I said this not true and he was surprised. His reaction was that someone had been fooling the Mambila in saying that they could not have children without being circumcised. Said that one must sleep with a small girl about Rosalie 's age (10) as soon as wound heals. He did this as well as John . If not juice loses power.

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