Shoas taken out of medicine house with much ringing of anklet bearing ball bearings. This is done to warn women away. Some small boys around, some of smaller ones run away when Shoa about to come out, even though they know it is only man inside they fear it.
The Jujus from Nyap's compound taken out by Roland those from Frederick 's compound by Frederick . Eddie took the latter behind the fence and Langley took Nyaps to repair them. New red ochre rubbed on them as well as soot on black parts. No reverential attitude in their treatment. Nyap's is called Mafe. Tanjo is name of Lance s. They are made up of rough sacking upon which tied chicken feathers. A small wooden mask is tied on top. Njibale is play Juju of Nyap

June 12, 1953, MBASHOA

5:30 A.M. We went to Archibald s compound where they were fiddling with mats of medicine house. In a short time they were to make medicine that laymen could see. Archibald , Thor and Keith (Of Gregory 's ) compound there.
6:30 Archibald says that it is too cold so he will wait awhile before making medicine.
6:50 Mbon goes under mats to fix Jujus. Not very secret, they open mat for me to see. He puts Juju on. Pot of corn beer sent to women in house.
7:30 Drinking beer and eating food at Archibald s were Roland , Nathan , Kurt , Archibald , Ron , Cadogan , Knox ,Clint . Conversation about wrestling. Women leave the house only rarely and cautiously. They walk rapidly and seem to be alert. Some men being shaven. Archibald s Juju called Burr (dog) he plays like a dog.
8:00 Rumour hath it that play Jujus coming from Tigul. Children are worried. Andrei begs beer from women by standing outside of the door and growling, this in Archibald s compound. I entered house only one woman frightened and hid in blanket. The rest chatting quite matter of factly. They asked me to bring Shoa small cup of beer which I did. Howie is one of play shoas.
If a small boy sent on errand he carries ball bearing ring. If a play Shoa attacks him, the latter must pay Archibald a fowl.
9:10 A.M. Gulli grass put around neck of sculptured shoas. This done so that they will look nice and not for medicine. So far nothing much has happended except fixing of Shoa suits. The rest of men, those not fixing suits, are drinking beer.
9:30 Frederick tells people in his compound to hide some of the beer so that if relatives come, he will not have to give all of it away.
9:35 Adrian appears alone in Nyap's compound. A few minutes later he calls Roland . Roland without asking what he wants brings a jug of beer. Then Adrian takes a piece of grass out of the roof of the house, Roland takes two, Adrian takes another. Just breaks off tip throws stalk in the bush. He then goes into the bush and gets some Nge grass. Holds it with piece of straw from the roof. He puts all of this grass into medicine house. Opens top section of medicine house. Only John , I, Adrian and Neal are in compound. Adrian takes out package of chicken feathers. Clint comes in and laughs. Adrian takes off his blanket. Langley comes in. Roland goes off to bush gets Yu grass gives to Adrian who puts in medicine house. Roland takes Burr out. Langley rings iron with ball bearings. Other Jujus taken out. Pot of corn beer put in medicine house. Adrian his both shoulders with Yu grass, eats native salt and nibbles a bit of Yu grass. Everyone told to turn their backs except Adrian and Roland . Langley touched on stomach with native salt. Is given salt and Yu grass to eat by Adrian . Then Adrian says that he will dance better than the others and not fall, spits all over him. Langley puts on suit. Adrian rubs him with chicken feathers. Says that when Langley turns he will not be dizzy. Takes Nge grass spits on it and says if women see Shoa and don't admit it they will die quickly. Roland comes out of medicine house and dons Burr. Adrian wraps up Nge grass and gives it to Langley . Hits Langley with grass from roof on feet, breasts, head saying if he dances better than others and others try an bewitch him the witch will die. Adrian takes corn beer from small pot spits three times on Langley and gives him to drink. Boy from Adrian 's compound has same medicine made for him as was made for Langley , next Adrian does the same for Neal , then Brett . These are the people that will wear suits when first wearers are tired. First two are Langley and Howie . Suit taken off Howie so neck can be fixed. Medicine as above now made for Roland . Howie puts suit back on. Bundle of feathers now put back in medicine house by Adrian . About ten or fifteen minutes taken to adjust suits, especially the neck of Burr which is on Howie . Both serious and bantering conversation going on. All take off Shoa suits and these put back in medicine house. Adrian offers to sell me a Juju. Seven non-used shoas are kept in Adrian s store. Those we have seen so far are Nyaps except Burr which belongs to Archibald . The seven unused ones belong to Nyap since they were Theobald 's, Adrian keeps them as he is Theobald 's brother.
11:50 Nothing has happened much yet. People still sitting in Archibald 's compound drinking corn beer. Only one man from Tigul, also 2 men form Tigul who have just abandoned their play Shoa suits
12. Garth goes under mats of medicine house and makes medicine.
12:10 Roland vexed because women are singing and dancing in house and he says that they should not do this until shoas have gone to sleep. He takes this all very seriously and seems to know about all the medicines.
12:20 Strangers from Vokude appear and gave Archibald cola nuts, he distributes them, but big men refuse them as they say it is not traditional.
12:30 The most powerful Juju of all Nya Ba, brings Lobal medicine. Ron made the medicine for it. Ron is wearing Shoa, Jake (Tigul) also wears it, Robin will too. Jake wearing it now. They go behind fence, Jake is carrying Lobal. Press down grass with feet. Archibald comes later. This is where Tschang sleeps. (People who did not eat cola are those who are going to make medicine. Grass is trod down by these three as they are Neyen Nyu to Archibald . That is why Archibald comes later, not to see this being done.
12:40 The two Jujus from Nyaps place appear behind fence in areas the three Nyena Nyus cleaned. A fire is set. Small pots of corn beer brought 3 in all one by Abraham and two other small boys. Shoa suits removed. Fire burns a bit of dried palm leaves that had been taken by Ron from the fence. Much laughter, Nya Ba brings four ears of corns, which Robin roast on fire. Both Nya Ba that Jake (Tigul) Ron and Robin are Nyena Nyu to Archibald . Gregory sits with the three Nyena Nyu and Archibald . Now others come and sit down. Harold on prepared field. Garth and Ian sit far away. Harold eats some corn. Archibald fixes Burr on Neal . Adrian comes with Guli sits on prepared area. Rab , Rodney , Gregory , Archibald , Niall (Tigul) Adrian , Jake (Tigul), Harold ate the corn. Only medicine people and Nyana Nyu can do this. Thor brings Guli grass. Warren then Roland bring a small pot of beer. Archibald holds Guli grass brought by Thor his son. Clint brings small pot of beer. Much clowning by big men pretending to eat small children, all with much laughter. Clint criticises all because they only brought pots, but then he did this himself. Frederick still does not sit on cleared area. Jujus have been sitting there all of this time. Garth walk over to Adrian says something and walks off. Clint keeps going in and out. Waiting for Ron to come back as he has some medicine.
1:30 Clint now sits on the field. Nobody doing anything but chattering. waiting for Ron to make medicine. No one knows where he is and no one seems vexed at waiting. They begin. Jake begins to pour corn beer. Adrian holds a cup Niall pours palm oil into pot, Archibald had done it first, that is had put first oil into Adrian s cup.
Ron has just come bringing corn beer, Guli grass and mud. Archibald , Ron and those listed above go into bush to make medicine. Archibald followed by Adrian . Mud put on trumpet by Archibald the big men passing it around to each other in turn. Ron and Clint take it as well as others. Much jocularity Adrian does it for himself and hands to Archibald . Abraham is only small boy that it is given to, some have mud put on chest in form of cross, others just left too. Now others come to field and it is put on many including the children. Abraham is only one of boys like the big men to lick mud. Garth and some other men did not get mud. Ron poured beer into Archibald , Neville and Harold 's horn. They all whistle and blow out beer. Again Abraham joins men. Frederick does not join. Adrian gives his regular Tschuk speech. He ends everybody shouts. Nyaba hits big men with Lobal. He then makes speech mentioning Cahill , Johnson , etc. again greeted with cheers. Makes further speech mentioning Nyena Nyu again cheers. A speech saying if anyone steals wives, shoas will get them. All the time he is making speeches Adrian holds cup of beer in right hand and Guli grass and whistle in left.
Dyson interrupts and Adrian gets vexed. Adrian got mad and cursed those who stole his palm wine. Big argument about father who showed some palm wine trees to son. Garth got mad as did Cadogan . Complete chaos, people pushing each other around. Silence restored. Cadogan speaks. Frederick restores silence by speaking. Another explosion between Dyson and Ron . Griffith harangues. Adrian finishes amid noise. He shares cup of beer with Rab . Adrian and Archibald give all even small boys Guli grass. Adrian stopped at 2:45. Beer drunk by many. Four shoas begin to dance.
3:05 People hit ground with sticks and grass and shout at same time, this just to make noise.
3:15 Adjourned to Archibald s' Shoa dances. Harold wrestled with Neville . Gregory touched hand of Harold , Jake touched hand of Gregory . Tanya of Tigul touched hand of Jake , Dyson touched hand of Tanya. Now anyone can wrestle and sing. Shoas dance again, they whirl around and around with their arms outstretched. Before this started play shoas came. People caught Binnie and play Shoa flogged him. Binnie started to throw rocks at Shoa but people stopped him. He was absolutely hysterical. This was done as he had been bad.
3:45. Shoas left for Tiker Came to Ron s compound. Archibald led Burr around centre by having him hold Lobal he went around three times. Then Clifford and another man both as shoas danced around centre stayed about five minutes before going to Tiket.
4:00 Change of personnel in shoas on the road. Adrian gave new shoas native salt. 4:10 Came to dance place in Tiker. Tiker men behind fence. After ten minutes of dancing they go behind Johnson 's house and lie down.
4:20 Tscharl Jujus come out and play for four minutes then go behind fence. We left all sitting shoas behind and went behind fence. Johnson was making speech. Tiker people all sitting together, Tscharl sitting together, Ndiel and Tigul sitting mixed up together.
Cecil and Nyap (T) join Johnson in making Tschuk in the same way as Adrian did. Johnson and Nyap hold Guli grass. Tigul land Ndiel as well as Tscharl and Tiket get Guli grass from Cecil . 5:00 Rain storms drive people into houses for shelter. Neither Obidiah nor Rathbone are here. Rain stops.
All people have removed their upper but me. Samuel Zielinski tried to refuse but they made him take off his shirt.
5:30 Johnson put corn beer under stone in fenced area. He covers it with leaves. Peter (Johnson s brother) helped him in this.
Johnson and Peter gave people mud including Yip chi and Tscharl people. John claimed that people from Ndiel and Tigul took it too, I am not certain.
Johnson sings wrestling song, then Jujus only, then others do the same.
Samuel Zielinski and Johnson stop them as Nyap want to ring bell. Johnson waves piece of Lobal to silence people. Adrian tells Johnson to make all people shut up.
Then the medicine men say if anyone with bad medicine wrestles Warwar people Shoa will get them. Adrian suggested this all agreed. Johnson rings bell.
We go to Foster s. He and Johnson wrestle, but it is stopped as soon as Foster lifts Johnson off the ground. Foster then sings song, followed by Dyson , followed by Nyap (t) then Garth . Johnson given pot of beer. Foster and Johnson share first cup. Johnson takes another cup and sprays it over shoas.
No wrestling takes place but about twenty people sing wrestling songs. Adrian says to crowd that foreigners will not throw Warwar wrestlers.
Back to Johnson s, Foster again wrestles Johnson . A man from Mang follows Foster . After about five singers party begins to break up. Went home at 7:00 P.M.
June 13, 1953. Mbashoa continued
Many people danced all night. Much corn beer. John and Clifford danced all night. In morning while we were sitting in Nathan s house, Darius , play Shoa, threw in some cola and gave Frederick an ear of corn. The young men who are going to wrestle are carrying their beer calabashes on a string tied to their shoulder as they must drink only from new cups. Some others also carry them this way, so that if play Jujus chase they can run better this way. Man and woman play Shoa go through act of fornicating standing up. Archibald leads shoas to Gregory s compound, twice around the central tree. Deposits one Lobal leaf and then starts to go as no one here. Gregory arrives as they about to leave. They ask for corn beer. Gregory goes to bush with a friend from Gembu Petil called Eustace . Friend carries back beer. Archibald pours a bit of beer on Lobal. He and Gregory share a cup which is finished by Gregory and Harold . Take corn beer out of compound.
We go to Cadogan duas, Archibald leads him around centre tree and then straight on to Adrian s. Again walked around centre tree, Archibald again leading Shoa with Lobal. The friend Eustace goes in to house to get pot of beer. Sit around and wait for beer. Gregory has joined us as have several strangers, 3 play shoas here. A small pot of beer brought from Rodney . First cup given to Archibald who pours on Lobal drinks a bit and gives rest to real Shoa. Gives next to play Shoa and next to another play shoa, 3rd cup to third play shoa. Rodney takes his pot away.
Play shoas start to go but someone tells them to stay as wrestling has not started. Harold sings wrestling song, Jujus join in clapping, Thor follows then Gregory . No real wrestling. Songs sung are: Where is the old chief? and Warwar people are going to take farms from Vokude people. Next to Harold 's compound. One pot of beer brought. Poured on Lobal by Archibald helped by Harold , rest given to Shoa, then Archibald and Harold share. Adrian not here, but Gregory , Frederick , Robin , Harold , Archibald and Shoa are. Another pot brought. Play Shoa who is male often goes through act of masturbating.
One of shoas of Tiker is so powerful that he cannot enter any compound or inhabitants would go crazy. He is just a wooden head, no cloth, he looks like Mafe, was carried by a boy of 12 and sat outside compounds.
1:30 Went to Tigul with shoas. Adrian , Archibald , Gregory , Frederick ,Robin were only big men to come. Brett came as Burr. Clifford went as Tanju. Hugh (Tigul) is dancing Mafe. Cahill follows Archibald who is distributing Lobal. Archibald does not sing wrestling songs or dance. Gregory leads all wrestling songs. Warren , Abraham and one of Harold s sons following us. The big people here say that there is not to be much wrestling as they fear people will get hurt and court will intervene. Also they shout to play shoas to hit people on legs only, not on head as otherwise someone might get hurt. Big argument as play Shoa hit a man's mother. Much talk no action. Bartholomew made Tschuk medicine in one compound. Left Tigul about 6 with all people.
June 14 Mbashoa continues.
11:00 A.M. Frederick , Harold , Ron , Archibald were big men at Archibald s compound. Ron poured corn beer over Lobal in Archibald s compound as Archibald had done elsewhere, but he did not deposit it, Archibald did that. Rest of morning spend drinking in afternoon play Jujus terrified kids. They enter a house and with the help of men haul out a child and make as if they are going to eat him. The men finally succeed in getting child away and let him run into house. Terry , Malcolm and others of this age get nearly hysterical. At Caspar s compound children wrestled. Were given pots of beer and sent into a house. 15 children in it ranging from about five to 16. Warren being the oldest was given first pot to divide. He poured some, then let Abraham divide. All was very elegantly and correctly done among peace and quiet. Then play Jujus roared in and children scuttled up to second floor. The Jujus threatened them unless they gave up the beer which they did, they gave it all up.
About 4:00 Ron carrying only the ring with the ball bearings went outside Marius s house and Nyaps and asked for food. Marius gave the little boys who went in to collect a fairly large piece of dried meat. Nyaps wife gave a handful of salt. Later Burr went to Harold s, Adrian s, Rodney s and up to Ian 's area and got more food. All gave them salt for the most part. Abraham , Warren and two other children about 7 and 8 from Jake s compound followed Burr and they went in to the houses to get the food. Food is to be cooked tomorrow. I did not see any wrestling today as big people discouraged the younger men from doing it. They feared court cases. All claim that they used to wrestle much more.
June 15th. Cook food given for shoas.
The corn for the food is ground by boys from Archibald s family and also girls. Girls married into the compound cannot prepare it. A daughter of Archibald s (strictly speaking Mallam Taffis daughter) is and does grind. Boys only grind a little. Jujus from Nyaps compound is brought to Archibald s. Put in Archibald s eating house and the house opening is covered with mats. Archibald takes out Burr and puts it also in the house. Two chickens have been brought by young boys to be introduced to Jujus for first time. Children led into house. Before going in a pinch of salt put into their mouth by Archibald . A chicken swung over the Jujus then over boys. Archibald says something. Then Thor pulls the leaves that Jujus wear around their necks, these leaves called Ingwinimie.
A chicken has his tongue slit. Thor swings it around so that all take blood from its mouth. Then all have chicken feathers stuck on their right shoulder by Thor . Then Harold says something and touches all on chest. Children seem to fear nothing but are quieter than usual. Third chicken killed and feathers taken off. Ron , Harold , Archibald and Thor and on of Archibald s Nyena Nyu here as well as Edmund from Tscharl.
Children are Theo and Teddy having no grass, and Malcolm , Samson , Barnaby , and Kit having grass. A bit of liver put on knife given to Harold by Archibald holding knife. Then Harold gives some to the rest. Robin comes in. Wing of chicken dropped into pot by boys. Then Archibald cuts grass through all of the childrens hands letting it drop into pot where rest of chicken is. Ron also cuts grass. As an indication of how little of the ritual attitude prevailed Robin had brought a goat skin which he was trying to sell, much marketing. Adrian and Frederick come to compound but stay outside as does Clifford . The children who are seeing all of this for the first time keep running in and out at this stage. The salt collected by Jujus will be put in with chickens. That left over to Archibald . Women cannot eat it, nor can they eat any of the chickens as they have been given to shoas. Lonnie a boy from Clint s compound caught by Juju, this time he fell in front of it. He brings chicken. Archibald gives him a bit of leaves. Ron ties special leaves around it. He brings chicken. Archibald gives him a bit of leaves. Ron ties special leaves around his neck, Harold waves chicken over his head saying Kissum. Slashes tongue of chicken, his neck, Harold waves chicken over his head saying Kissum. Slashes tongue of chicken tastes blood, gives some blood to Lonnie to taste. As they cut up the chicken they say to Lonnie the back of his legs nor his back will not hurt him. Lonnie given a part of liver on a knife to eat. As Archibald puts cold water into cooking pot, he says children who have been called in "as the cold water is so your skin will be, cool and fever will not get you, and Jujus wont catch you.
About an hour later, in the interim the others had been drinking beer, the specially ground Fufu is given to initiates by Thor , wrapped around a leg of chicken. They eat it in Archibald s eating house. Archibald dressed in his Shoa. The leaves taken off the children they are pushed out of the house and the play Jujus flog them then they come back. Ron puts mud on all of the peoples chests that are there. They put the head of the Juju on the children and some of the men present. Archibald then spits some of the bark from the tree in the centre of the compound into the mouth of the Shoa. Then Thor and Harold give the children some mud on tongue and chest from head of Burr. Clifford got some of the mud.


Rodney s Compound June 16, 1953
Came in while they were cooking the chicken. Already chicken feathers on the shoulders of the participants. Medicine made for the child of Reuben (Rodney s compound). Medicine made by Rodney , child is a girl. After this medicine they can shave her with blade, before could only cut her hair. This medicine made if many previous children had died. With first child you make all of the medicine that your fathers family made. If the child dies, you may continue making medicine on several children, if they die, then you try to save the next by making only this medicine on them, this kills the other medicines. In order to partake of chicken and fufu of this medicine one must either have the medicine made for one when small or have it made for ones child. Ritual similar to other medicines in that chicken blood, feathers, native salt given to participant. Rodney gave native salt to mother, father and child, also they licked palm oil from one of sacrificed chickens feathers. All the people of the compound ate of chicken and fufu. Name of child is Alex .


Adrian says that people were stealing his palm wine and he wanted to make medicine to prevent them. Dyson said not to make the medicine as sometimes Nyena Nyu take ones palm wine. Dyson was very vexed as Adrian did not agree to refrain from making the medicine. Adrian made it by saying whoever took his palm wine should be caught by Jujus. While saying this he threw a bit of corn beer on the ground thus making the medicine. Adrian said that he wanted to make the medicine as now he was too old to go to Kimbaw or Ndu to get things to trade, and he could not work farm much, so if people took his palm wine he could not get money to pay his taxes and buy things.
Harold told Adrian to make medicine so that if a man dies when his children still small the members of his family and other townsfolk will show the children the farms of their father. Also must show him palm wine trees. If people hide this knowledge the Jujus will get them. Cadogan said that this medicine should not be made, at this Garth got vexed and asked Cadogan whether he had stolen farms. People got angry at Cadogan and finally he agreed to have medicine made.
Frederick later said that people were angry when Adrian wanted to make medicine for palm wine trees as he seemed to be accusing the hamlet people of stealing. Only some agreed to his making it, therefore they were angry that he went ahead and made it. John says that he should not make such medicine without having most people present agree to his making it.

WULI FARMS and Mountain Ownership

Gays is about 15 yds by 18 yds, this is his only Wuli farm.
Gregory s about 15 yds by 12 yds. He is also using another plot.
Gregory , Robin ,Ron , Isaac , Alan (Dyson s compound) Dyson , Keen , Harold ,Denzil , Cadogan , Irving , Frederick , Griffith , Roland have all planted their fields together.
Roland claims that he owns this land on the mountain side, but that he can't stop people from farming on it, even if he wished. Can only stop them from burning grass for hunting. Anyone even a total stranger who comes to village can plant here. Doesn't know whether he could sell it or not, he says that he would have to ask Cadogan who is the big man for the area. Cadogan says the mountain belong to Adrian s he is big man for them. It once belonged to their big father Dobson . But he says anyone can work it as farm without consulting Adrian . Cadogan says that Roland doesn't know and thinks that he owns it because Theobald did. During dry season if they hunt they bring all meat to
him Cadogan as Adrian told him to take care of the mountain. When meat is brought Adrian called and he distributes meat among all four hamlets. When asked whether if people from one hamlet did not come to hunt, they would still share in meat, he said that they always came.

Tangana Farm Palaver

Farms belong to Tscharl. Tscharl planted tin trees. Farms belonged to Chamberlain brother of Harry . Now they all belong to Harry . They never agreed to Tangana people working farms. Planted Tin last year when they planted guinea-corn. Tangana people took down trees and have not yet planted guinea-corn. Tangana people say that it is their farms, D.O. Told that it was not, D.O. gave them some of the farms. Evidently the boundary of the two villages set by Don Lawan on the mountain. He told Tangana people that they could collect the crops that they had planted but that from thence on they must not use the area again. They tested claims by using sasswood, Tangana chickens died.


Seen at Caspar s compound June 23, 1953.
Men as well as women from compound took part, also Reuben from Rodney s compound Rodney made medicine. Adrian there but did nothing but blow whistle. This is same medicine as seen at Rodney tells us who were introduced to shoas a few days ago:
Duke not seen before
Adam " " "
Anselm seen before
Malcolm (Harold s son) seen before
Lonnie Juju had caught him
Horace had seen before
Duke and Adam had brought a chicken. Lonnie brought a chicken. The others did not bring chicken as they had none. Archibald can show them Jujus if they bring no chicken, but they must give him at least some native salt. <H4>ARCHIBALD ON MBASHOA JUNE 24Lobal brought to all compound so that bad sickness will not come, so that there will be peace in the compound and that enough food will be in the compound.
Order of visiting in Ndiel: Cornelius , Ron , Gregory , Rodney , Adrian , Harold .
Tigul: Neville , Bryce , Jake , Cedric , Rudi .
The reason they put Lobal here and not in other compounds is that all of these people have Bel medicine.
Behind the dance fence they throw beer on rock, hit rock with stick, and throw beer in the air to make it rain. They flatten out area behind fence near the rock on which they pour corn beer. This is where dead people sleep. They make medicine near dead people so that the latter will bring them good food and rain.
Burr is the most important Shoa in Ndiel because his is the oldest. Older ones existed, but have been lost or destroyed.


Made for girl from Charles s compound who came back for visit recently having been married. The girl brought palm wine which Frederick took, Drank first cup. Xavier said if people from Tscharl did not bring £4 they would not take chicken. The girl handed Griffith a chicken and a jug of palm wine, when she did this Clifford said that now that chicken had been given and palm wine for Tschuk, she would have many male children. Slit chickens tongue, licked some of blood gave her to lick, and let some drip down her back. Hit her shoulder and the small of her back with chicken leaving blood marks. Clifford had also put some blood on his right toe. Ron takes feathers off and cooks chicken. Second jug of palm wine taken by Frederick , Ron , Clifford , Duncan , Andrei ,Xavier , Gene (Tscharl) Irving , Charles , Pearson , Reg (Tiket) Gene and Xavier watch cooking carefully. The girl is only female in the circle the rest of the women sit far away. The cooking is done on the path leading to Beckett s compound. Griffith when he met the girl coming said it was a very small chicken. Actually it was a large cock. Clifford cuts up the chicken. Griffith holds intestines up. Charles , Ron Andrei run their fingers up it while Clifford says something. Finally the girl does this also. Then it is put in girls outstretched palms. They rub the hands up intestine three times. Girl passes intestine back to Clifford three times. 3rd time keeps it and put it on fire. As they ran their hands up the intestine Griffith said today we make Tschuk medicine so that many male children will be born. Clifford gives first bit of chicken, a wing, to girl to nibble then takes it back. The two feet are given to two small boys. About a third of the chicken given to Frederick . Clifford keeps big piece. Girl has all the time sat close to fire watching proceedings. Clifford gives Reg a leg and Charles a leg. Children in audience get given small pieces by older people.
Clifford puts a grass in the palm wine. Reg , Ron , Xavier , Charles , Andrei , Frederick then woman take a sip from cup. Before woman drinks he puts a bit of the same grass in her mouth. Clifford and Reg puts it in the fire saying woman will bear male children, witches will die, her crops will grow, boys will marry girls, etc. He then gives girl another cup. A man from Tscharl related to Frederick 's group through a woman wanted to have medicine made for him. Clifford told him he would have to pay four shillings. He refused, Much discussion. Finally paid four shillings.
Clifford took Guli grass waved it over girls head saying things. All laughed while he was talking including Clifford . Then waved grass over fire. Ron then shaved stick over woman saying things, then spat on her right breast, then shaved wood over the fire. Frederick chewed Lebir grass and put it on between her breasts. Ron had forgotten to spit on her so Frederick reminded him.
The Nyena Nyu from Tscharl represents the groom. He goes to pick up calabash and Frederick says that he must pay for them. So he produces 3d and Frederick takes it and keeps it. He is not happy and thinks it should be more. Nyena Nyu not from grooms family but represents him.

Harry the father of the groom comes, they argue about £4. Xavier is the man who will get it. Xavier is vexed as he had wife and Harry s brother married her. Harry says that he paid him in court for stealing her. Argument is about bride price for girl. Girl went to Tscharl about three weeks ago, that is to her husband. Ian , Clifford and Frederick counsel Xavier to wait before asking for money and see what happens. Xavier are very vexed. Johnson and Frederick suggest that they make medicine to make them peaceful. Ron makes it. He takes some leaves, puts them in calabash of water. Xavier has come to sit near Harry . Harry says why he is vexed, then Xavier does the same. Ron takes leaves, shakes them on the ground then puts some in Harry s mouth then into Xavier s mouth. Ron said, both are vexed, Jujus will catch earth and catch sun but not catch these people, said it three times for each of the two men.The shaved stick over the head of each three times.
Harry said he was vexed: His brother married Xavier s mother. When Xavier wanted to get married he asked him for money to give gifts to fiancee. Harry said he gave him some. Xavier asked him to send man of his family to go help on girls families farm he did. Xavier asked for help in bringing firewood to girls mother he did. Xavier 's mothers husband died. Gilmour , Xavier s older brother, told Xavier s mother to come to Tiker with him. Xavier followed his mother. Xavier had previously lived with Harry s brother at Tscharl with his mother. Harry didnt help him with bridewealth as he had moved away to Tiker. <br> Xavier said. When Xavier first tried his fiancee, man who had married his mother was alive and helped him, when the husband died all of the man's brothers didn't help him with anything. Xavier said that Harry lied when he said he had helped him with money, firewood and farm work on his fiancees family farm. When he got married they gave him no money. Harry took Xavier s wife and she went to marry Harry s brother at Kara. (The woman wanted to marry this brother. Xavier took the runaway wifes brother to court and got a judgement.Harry helped the wifes brother pay as he knew that his brother was going to marry the girl. Xavier asked Harry refused saying that he was not from his family. Harry s son married Beckett s sister. (Xavier being one of the family) Charles said nothing during all of this.
The stick that Ron scraped over the girl called Ndulkie. When he scraped it over her head, he said if witch tries to hurt her the Ndulkie would kill it. When he scraped it over fire he said if witch tried to steal ashes of fire or chickens feathers Ndulkie would catch him.
If witch stole the ashes or chicken feathers girl would get sick.

June 26th, 1953

We happened to be walking by Brett s compound and heard a lot of noise. It was a discussion about a big basket of Wulis left by deceased woman. Her three daughters and Ned her brother were disputing its ownership. One daugher claimed a very big part and the others were vexed. After much discussion the issue was settled equitably dividing the Wulis into four parts one for each of three daughters and one for Ned . Buchanan made Shoa medicine to still the anger in their hearts. Buchanan said three times touching earth and licking his fingers,
Shoa catch the earth, Shoa catch the sun
Shoa will not catch you,
Shoa will not hurt you,
Your body will not be heavy,
the fire of Juju will not hurt you (fire means illness)
{Mambila text from original fieldnotes - not in transcript:}
shoa ya lu, Shoa ya tap (three times)
shoa wo chi yola
shoa wo yu, war wo chua
wo Shoa chua chia ichi yar
Then he took the hand of each of three women touched it to ground three times and repeating this three times, after each statement he snapped his fingers and cleared his throat.
After this Rab (Tigul) made Nam medicine. He said bad things will go away, while waving Nam grass over heads of all of the sisters. Did this with left hand. Then with right hand he held grass and said, today as you people are together and have confessed your anger the dead will no longer trouble you, the dead will join their own and the living join their own. The dead will forget you people and not make you sick or trouble you in any way. They each took a bit of grass and threw it over their shoulders and then given what was left. This to be placed under their beds.
June 28.
Dome now sleeps at Archibald s compound, comes from Mverrup. Disel is father name, he sleeps Mverrup. Suzanne is mothers name she died, she was married to his father when she died. His father agreed that he come. His real brother came to get him back, he does to like his brother. His brother beat him with a stick, and told him that unless he came home at once he would beat him. He refused so his brother beat him. He now says that he will go back to Mverrup next market day. He likes Mverrup better than here but was angry with his brother because the latter said that he must return at once. On July the 6th had not yet returned.


Boundary between Tangana and Tscharl is marked by trees on the path. If Warwar people sleep on other side of trees then they must pay tax through Kara. D.O. and Don Lawan made boundary. The D.O. Told Tangana people that they had planted corn on Warwar side, that they should collect their crop but must not plant there again. Tscharl people never asked them to leave, even after corn harvested. They are now angry as Tangana people have taken even more farms. The fields belong to Wandang and Djira. The Tangana people don't agree to boundary and have torn down trees marking it. Warwar has always owned both groups of farms. Tscharl people had allowed Tangana to use first group of farms on understanding that they would vacate when asked, since Tangana people said that they did not have enough. When they recently asked for them back, Tangana people refused. Case taken to Mallam Taffis court. Six Tangana chickens died of sasswood. Mallam Taffi reported this to Don Lawan who had marked original boundary and had told Tangana people to stay only until their crops were ready and then go. Disputed farms belong to: Geoffrey , Clark , Christian , Ken , Joseph , Roddy , Julius , Enoch , Josh , Edmund , Sinclair , Harry , Roger . They all belong to MANA Chamberlain .
Tangana man says. Samuel is big man of people working the farms. He says that he was first to work here and farms belong to Tangana and Ninge people. He says that he will swear on the bell that this is true. He says Don Lawan told them that they belonged to Tangana and Ninge. He says his father and mother worked them. He says trees were planted by Tscharl people but that Warwar people had cut down Tangana and Ninge trees. (This refers to Tin trees)
Obidiah says they belong to him. He says he planted the Tin trees, the farms belonged to Chamberlain originally. Tscharl people admit they once cut down Tangana and Ninge Tin trees. They told Tangana and Ninge to come and take the trees away, the latter agree that they took their trees back. Tangana people say these were never Warwar farms. Tangana man says Don Lawan said that these farms belong to Tangana, but he told them to let Warwar people work some of them.

ADRIAN June 29th - Special guinea-corn field

3 days after Mba Shoa he plants guinea-corn. Tscharl Tiker and Ndiel and Tigul plant same day. He must wait until guinea-corn comes out before telling people to plant theirs.
They have to wait until it comes out in all 4 hamlets before beginning to plant. Guinea-corn wont come out if people go sleep elsewhere, fight, sell food to strangers who take it out of town. They can sell food to strangers but it must not come away. If people break rule must give fowl to Adrian then guinea-corn comes up.
Clifford does not plant field for Tschuk but for Clifford . Adrian says even if he teached his medicine to another man he can marry his daughter and he, his.


Nyap (T.) daughter is bride called Bin. Groom is Rhys from Tigul. Married one year. This is done so that the husband of the bride can eat her mother's food during planting of guinea-corn. Otherwise he could not eat there for this period. At other times of the year the groom can eat at his in laws' with no medicine being made. Groom arrives carrying small jug of cornbeer, drunk by Johnson and rest of family. Groom drinks none. He sits on side, no one paying any attention to him. Groom digs up small ridges, near Nyaps house. A bunch of leaves laid on ridges by Jake holding Rhys 's hand. He also held hands when Rhys made ridges. (A brother of Jake bought the medicine from him for 1sh.) The mound is about 1 ft. high and 4 ft. long. Husband of girl helps mother in law take off her basket. She gives him native salt. She mixes seeds he has brought with hers. They plant guinea-corn in ridges together. They tie chicken brought from Tigul to be given to Nyap. All guinea-corn eaten by chicken. A small pot of cornbeer planted in mound. The groom gets under native umbrella and mother in law under mat. Young girls of compound rush in and shower both with water. The 2 keep working with hoes. Both are soaked. Young girls rush around trying to throw water on groom while medicine man chase them away. Nyap's wife and son in law sit on mound. They eat small bits of chicken and fufu. This medicine given to them by medicine woman is called Guana. The medicine man and woman hold up cup which son in law and mother in law share, much joking. Cahill ON LAND TENURE. -Frederick says Parker cannot sell farms unless he agrees. He says that Adrian can sell those he got from his father but not those shown him by Frederick . No one has sold farms in Ndiel for long time. Several have bought from Tiker and Tigul. He gave Garth 3 fields. Garth gave him nothing as if Garth 's mother had been a man, Garth would own them. He says everyone has enough farms some bought because land was better. Actually he cannot take farms from people. He says his big big father owned all the land a long long time ago. And sold some to Adrian 's big big father.
If Ian dies Charles and V. Zielinski would probably work his farm. And when Ian 's son is big enough he would be given the farm. This applies also to palm wine trees.
{QV section in Marriage notes dated 30 June}


People from Tscharl who came to talk to me about it. Chamberlain was 1st man to own farms. Tristan , son of Chamberlain , was 2nd owner. Ashby was 3rd owner., was 2nd son of Chamberlain . Hubert is present owner, is son of Tristan . He says that he owns all of the farms. That his brothers have begged them from him and he leaves them use use them. He could not tell his brothers to go away as they are of his family. He does not get any part of crop or a chicken, If he wanted to sell no one could stop him but has never should. No one using can sell without his permission. When he dies big people will decide who is to take care of farms. Maybe his sons but more probably a brother. Probably next oldest. He was oldest person in family when Bradley died. And that is why he took care of farms. A long time ago the Tangana and Ninghe people as well as Warwar people used the farms. They became unpleasant and Hubert told them to go away. The Ninghe and Tangana people did not work farms during Chamberlain time. During Tristan 's time. When Hubert got farms, the Tangana and Ninghe people told him not to come back them. Warwar people went to court and Don Lawan and D.O. made boundary giving farms to Warwar Tristan did not want Tangana people to use farms, but they did anyway. Theobald was chief then he told people not to fight. When Hubert became owner they went to Mallam Taffi. Chickens of Tangana and Warwar given sasswood. Tangana fowl died. Tangana people angry as they say Mallan Taffi was Warwar man. Case taken to Gembu. There the boundary was fixed. When boundary made Samuel Zielinski was chief. Tangana people agreed to boundary when D.O. present, but then jumped boundary. Warwar people planted corn and Tangana people destroyed it.
Tangana people put in jail. This happened 2 1/2 years ago. Warwar people then planted guinea-corn and argusi. Tangana people took it. Again Tangana people put in jail about 2 years ago. Next event is present one: Warwar people took down Tin trees on direction of D.O. When D.O. had fixed boundary Warwar people had asked him what to do with tin trees planted by Tangana. He told them to wait until they grew then take them down and give them to Tangana people.
Mr Schneider was here when they made boundary and also when they stole corn and guinea-corn. When Alkali asked chief of Kara whether he had sent people to work farms he said yes, Darius had said to send them.


Except in elopments you give fowls and spear. In case of elopment you give a spear after parents agreed. In one case John knows of father did not agree to elopment. Father rang bell saying "Juju catch girl, if she does not come back" Big people did not agree. So after much argument, bell rang again, saying "it should not catch her". However father still refuses to take money, spear or fowl.
It seems to be case that mother's family owns children of bridewealth, but not exchange. In olden times, if child of bridewealth marriage was given a sister to exchange by his father or brother and the sister was a product of exchange marriage, the children belonged to the father of the boy's family. However if son of bridewealth marriage given sister to exchange by mother's family the child belongs to the father.

MARRIAGE - July 3rd - from Clint

He says Simon has given 3 £ already for Nyap's sister. They ask for £one more. £2 that lent him, and Dickson gave him £1. Simon , a girl of Dickson 's compound has come.
He is from Nverrup. We asked him what he had given her but he was too ashamed to say. He refused to talk. Did not even give his name. He sat in Simon 's house, ate there and did not come out. He came yesterday alone and will go today.


ARCHIBALD told Howie to fix and clear a mound near the entrance of his compound. Archibald , Howie , Adrian<!-- Person#1647--> and another man from Adrian 's compound. were there. When the mound fixed, Archibald planted guinea-corn. He then took Guli grass Guir and yui leaves. He hit each of men present on breast with Yui leaves and had them bite off a small bit. He gave each a bit of guir leaves. He planted a stake of bamboo and tied guli grass on it. And also stuck some in the ground. Howie handed him a small ear of corn. Archibald told him it had to be cooked. So he went to her forge and put it in fire for a few seconds. Then Archibald held it and the 3 in turn took a bite and spat it out. Howie ended by eating it all. The corn was carried inside a basket of guinea-corn seeds. Archibald asked "(This part of ritual) How corn had got into basket?" and then he said they could eat it and guinea-corn would not spoil. When he hit them with Yui leaves, he said that if they jumped over ridges of guinea-corn it would not hurt their stomachs. He tied guli grass on basket, saying that if man tried to spoil guinea-corn then the grass would catch him. Archibald says he makes medicine for Adrian today so that he can plant his guinea-corn, will make it for others tomorrow. He says he will make it for Frederick . Adrian is the 1st to plant guinea-corn. When the new corn is 1st eaten one ear is put in the centre of compound where medicine is grown.
July 5th - Adrian 's FARM -
Margaret , Harold 's daughter, was the 1st to plant guinea-corn on Adrian 's farm. Harold cut sticks and this dictated choice. It could as well have been a married woman. any woman of family could be chosen. Guinea-corn planted on same ridges as corn.
Frederick says he will plant guinea-corn when field ready. He will go to Archibald to have medicine made. He says lots of people know medicine but big people agree to have Archibald make it as his father made it before him. He said Thor will probably make it when Archibald dies. Frederick says that the medicine he makes for the man from Tscharl whose feet hurt him was called Ndam. He bought it from his father for £2. Some give him 2, some 3 sh. To make it. He also eats part of the chicken from which medicine is made Adrian and Archibald also have it in Ndiel. The big ant told the man to come to Frederick

MARRIAGE - by John - July 6th

If a woman married by exchange steals her husband has to pay. If by bridewealth, her brother is responsible. The son of bridewealth steals: the father may help, but mo's bro's responsible. In case of bridewealth marriage, when 1st daughter marries for bridewealth it goes to her fa. if he has paid. When 2nd daughter marries it goes to mo's bro. The 3rd goes to fa. The 4th is shared between the 2. The son of a bridewealth marriage is helped to marry by fa. but only because he wants to. Mo's bro. must help.


If woman wants to leave her husband she goes to fa's compound and from there she may be taken by new man. Divorce can be had by merely leaving husband and going to fa's. Normally husband goes to fa. Tries to get her back, but if she refuses he can do nothing. Now because of court if your wife leaves, you claim bridewealth and children, but previously you did not claim bridewealth because if you did they would call you bad man. The court giving children and bridewealth back is an innovation. Recently bride's parents take nothing until 2 children born. except cock and spear. These 2 are symbols of marriage. In case of elopment, these 2 things are given as soon as possible. The spear is very long and not used for hunting. Used only for display and getting woman.

Marriage John July 6

A man cannot marry anyone that his wife calls sister. If your wife dies it still is impossible to marry anyone that called sister. A divorced wife cannot marry into her ex-husbands family, that is anyone her husband called brother.
If husband dies then younger brother or older brother can marry his wife. The father cannot. John would not wish to marry one older than himself though not prohibited. Children cannot marry deceased father's wives. Jack Kennedy would marry John 's wife if he died and he had been married by exchange. Widow should agree, but if her paired wife is still alive she may refuse and the paired marriage is broken, but if paired women has died then widow will be forced to stay and marry her husbands "brother". Sometimes if widow refused to marry a brother, and paired wife still alive, they allowed the latters husband to pay bridewealth and remain with his wife, and any consequent children will belong to wife's family. In case of exchange marriage if one wife dies, the other cannot leave under any condition unless a sister of hers is given as a replacement.
At first marriage brideprice is highest. Decreases each time of remarriage. The bride says how much it is to be, but father can say if it is too much or too little.The range is from £2 to £8. In first marriage ranges from £6 to £8.Bride price given to the father and is his. £1 or more given to mother according to brides instructions. The latter is not recoverable under any condition


Anita - Yambap Bridewealth. He gave £4 to father, that is man acting in loco parentis as father dead. Anita told him she wanted to live in Mverrup, he refused so she left him. Went back to Yambap and died there. Had a daughter called Lucy about 6 who lives with her mother's mother at Yambap. Did not ask for any money back.
2nd wife. Astrid Tiker. Phil who is dead was her father. He has given £1.10 sh has to give £2 more. No children. She had been married to Manley before he lives in Dyson s compound. She bore three children there all died. Left Manley and married Andrei .


Stewart paid 4 shillings for chair. 4sh. for hair do. Nicholas sen £5 as this was requested but father sent it back saying he would ask for it later. Her younger sister set the amount.


He has given no money as her maternal and paternal kin are arguing who is to get it. Her older sister married and her father took the money. Now mother's family want the money for her. Her father and mother married by bridewealth. No discussion yet as to amount. She has been married once before. She left him because she was ill with him and her one child died. She bore two children with Martin on boy one girl, both died. Bride price for her first marriage set by her younger sister.
he made small mound in corn field then threw in some guinea-corn. Then planted calabash of guinea-corn beer. Then place a number of medicine leaves on it.


Made a small round mound on cleared field, no corn. Abraham had been carrying short pointed stake of bamboo. Rodney makes a slit in it and places guli grass in slit. Then planted it in ground. Took small calabash of guinea-corn beer, took sip sprayed it over mound three times. Then buried it. Sliced up gourd and put it around stake. Then rain fell and we hurried to shelter. When rain stopped Rodney and Abraham returned to farm. In a corner of the field where corn already planted Rodney fixed a mound, and called Abraham . Abraham took seeds and told father "to let him work" Father said work. This is part of ritual. He sowed seeds an covered it. Brought gourd to his father who sliced it, put it on mound where guinea-corn planted and placed medicine leaves on it. Grasses planted were Guli, Tu, Purup, Njum, Lebir, Nge, Manajo, Qualap, Ga, Chamvur, Njuwuli, Lum, Walup, Tip. Aubrey says if a few forgotten it does not matter. It best to bring all your medicines but if not all it doesn't matter. When medicines planted neither Rodney nor Abraham said anything. Rodney then went into middle of the field to make some medicine. He said that he preferred if we did not follow him, this medicine should not be seen by anybody, it is made to protect guinea-corn against witches.
Rodney 's daughter began to sow Tin seeds rather haphazardly, his wife took seeds and began to sow them again. Rodney took basket of guinea-corn seeds and began sowing them walking up an down the ridges. His wife and daughter followed him covering seeds with earth.


Today he made it for Rodney , Harold , Dyson , Caspar , Manley , Gregory . Made it on same place and in same way as he did to Adrian as described above.


Archibald held Clifford s hand and showed him how to use hoe. Clifford took some of his seed and gave to Archibald , both of them sowed it, then Archibald took some leaves and hit Clifford on chest with them and then placed them on the mound. Archibald took Guli grass, planted some on mound and tied some to basket. Archibald held out leaves which Clifford bit on and spat out twice. Then Archibald held out ear of corn which Clifford had brought and Clifford bit and spat then ate normally. He gave what he did not want to eat quite casually to Clifford . Clifford , Archibald and I only adults there. No ritual attitude. Archibald gave Clifford a bit of mud from mound which Clifford took away with him.


First made a small mound about a foot high and a foot long. He had forgotten calabash for putting beer in so he sent for it and spent time clearing a bit of other field. Pippa brought it. When it came he poured beer in, went to mound, threw in a few seeds of guinea-corn then half-buried calabash. Then went to get grass that he has forgotten. This grass then planted. He said nothing during the procedure. Only Clint did the medicine. Simon 's wife, Pippa , his other daughters and a small child were there. Simon l strolled in after medicine finished. Clint took leaf and waved it over basket containing guinea-corn seed muttering something and saying Kissum. He then sowed seed and covered it himself.


The first three days girl is married she does not grind flour. Gets her flour from her husband's mother. As soon as the next crop is in the bridge takes part of her husbands as her own, she can sell part if she wishes. When a man gets married usually his father gives him extra farms, but if his father has not enough he can beg from other people. Bride is ashamed in front of bridegrooms parents. Spends most of time at beginning with grooms mother and they can converse quite freely. Often she does not talk to groom's father for about a month, but there is no ritual prohibition against so doing. The father may talk to her, but she will make her answers as brief as possible. With older bros. Too she is ashamed but with younger ones she is free. Bride expected to help grooms mother, and work with her. Theoretically the first wife has some authority over second.


Fulani have medicine to turn into stick or stone if they are being chased. Also both he and John say they have medicine so that knife or spear can't hurt them, also can make person that they are chasing fall down through medicine. Most Mambila believe Fulani are dangerous as they have many good medicines.

Gave Guli grass to all women and children of the compound to throw on top of planted seeds, so that guinea-corn will grow well like Guli grass. He says all do this, which explains why they have Guli grass tied on basket of guinea-corn seeds. Today he made medicine for
Clifford , Clint , Robin , Frederick and Nathan to plant their guinea-corn today.
Archibald went to farm today to plant his guinea-corn with the members of his compound but he was back soon. Left about 11 back 1:30. The rest of the group stayed out on field.
July 8. Many people are making medicine in compound to make guinea-corn grow and to protect women against illness. The head man of the compound makes it.


He had told me Theobald was his father as he had taken him when Nyap was in arms. His real father died in Vokude and Theobald married his mother. Nyap claims Theobald treated him better than his real sons. If he had been Theobald s son he could not have married Adrian s daughter's daughter. Adrian at Theobald 's death gave Nyap equal share of cargo. Nyap has same mother as Roland and Neal . But the fact that Nyap not Theobald 's son explains why Roland got most of the medicines. Nyap in most respects acts as a member of Adrian 's man. His real father was Hywel from Vokude. Is treated like a brother in Vokude.


He is angry at his wife. When he sold some firewood she became angry at him. He tried to give his daughter from another marriage some food, to take to her home, but she wouldn't let him. He told us when corn beer is available somewhere she goes off to get some often does not come home in time to cook his food. He is looking for another wife and this makes her even angrier. He says that he told her to go away, but she wouldn't.


Mothers family has to make medicine for babies. They come and make medicine to take the child out of the house after father's family has done so. Husband gives them one chicken, corn beer and money if available, if not one or two native hoes.
Sisters of bride will bring firewood which groom has to pay for about 2 sh. This done if they don't live too far away, that is in same village.
If child is sick and father makes medicine and it fails then child should be taken to mothers kin to have medicine made


In old times if you killed a man accidentally in hunting you give his family a sister. Usually this was a small girl, she might later be married by people themselves or exchanged. In the old days giving a man was not acceptable. John says that he saw a case of this happen some years ago. John heard that very long ago they sometimes have children for food in case of famine. Children would be called Quer = slave. Ninga they say is English word equivalent to Quer comes probably from Nigger.


Rolf has just married his "sister". Rolf 's mother and Fanta, the wife's name, father had same father. Wife comes from Kutin which is name of a tribe I believe.


If you kill someone in hunting by accident you give 2 girls about 8. You don't give a male. One of the two girls given is the first to wail for the dead. Prior to her arrival there is not mourning. He never heard of a case of a man killing another purposely and hence does not know what would happen. Renton speared a man through the mouth, a person from Tigul. Boy did not die so Renton did not pay anything. If victim does not die nothing paid. If woman killed by accident also paid 2 girls. Cited two cases one at Yambap one at Vokude, never heard of killing a woman on purpose. The two girls given are called Quer. He says person receiving slave may marry them. He says so none alive in Warwar was slave.


He makes it for all four hamlets. Johnson is very angry as Fulani say they want to cut trees from sacred grove to make canoes, he says that he cannot allow it and they must kill him first. If the trees were cut, corn and guinea-corn would never grow again. Ndarrup, Tiker, Ndiel, Tscharl and Tigul people would rather die than have them cut.
JOHNSON gave the children the Guli grass that they are wearing around their necks, so that they will grow quickly, not be ill and guinea-corn will grow well.

Rolf Discusses Generalities.

He says Mallam TAffi has not treated people well. When cows spoiled farms and Tin trees Fulani gave him dashes, the Mambila didnt and the Mambila got practically nothing. He said Sidney stole money from Adrian , both Ngam and Sasswood have said so. He denied it and threatened to summons Adrian for defamation. Adrian paid him five chickens not to sue him. Sidney now trying to blackmail Rodney . He says that he ill summons him unless he pays £3. He says that Rodney had Caspar s father given sasswood about twenty years ago as Caspar s father was witching him. He died in ordeal. Rolf says that they cut Haldane s belly and found that he was a witch. He says all semi-acculaturated Mambila. cheat their brothers. Mentioned S. Zielinski , Mallam Taffi, Sidney and a Don Doka from Kabri. One Don Doka from Titon is supposed to be honest. All people are very afraid of going to court, even John is terrified of idea. They would do almost anything to avoid it.

July 10th Titolup Medicine This is stick augury.

Today Frederick cut sticks to find out whether I should marry Florence or not. He said that her parents don't agree, but that she wants to marry me. If we marry we shall have lots of male children, and he said that I should have no troubles going home. He took the sticks, carried two with jagged points, One was male and other female. Made a triangle with lines in the middle on the ground.

Blew tobacco smoke on the sticks and began to cut. As he cut he muttered questions. Would cut four pieces. If two pieces with bark come up and two with inside come up the answer is yes, if 3 and 1 the answer is no, but maybe, if 4 of one type the answer is definitely no. This can not be used if person has died in village until the wailing is over, that is second day after death.


Frederick made Num Koli medicine for his sisters (same mother) child who had just been born. He took two bamboos stalks, put cocoyam leaves at bottom and poured in water and then put cocoyam leaves on top to keep water in. He then tied to stalks together and that was all. Two boys about 6 and 7 came from Ndarrup to get it and bring it to his sister. Father's family can make this medicine also. Child is given water to drink. It should be first water that he drinks, but if mother's family is far away, he can drink other water first, but must drink this. Frederick not paid for this.

July 10th. From Ian .

Igor from Adrian s compound was a thief, but he went to Ndarrup and there some man made medicine for him now he is cured. A few years ago Clifford and Hermes accused of stealing £10 and some native hoes. Ngambe and Sasswood said, that Clifford was guilty, that is when it was tested by Tiker people. Theft was from Cahill 's family. Clifford denied it and when he got his family to give sasswood his chickens vomitted. Palaver not fully settled when the son of Johnson s wife got sick and admitted that he had stolen the things, as well as starting the fire that burned Cahill 's compound. He shortly died. The man was not Johnson s son.
July 9th. Archibald made guinea-corn medicine today for Reuben , Bob (Robin s compound) Brett , Ezra , Charles .
July 10th. Archie made guinea-corn medicine for Garth , Ron , Nyap,Andrei .
TIGUL (I think) RESIDENT. (Check in notebook)
Jimmy says Gilbert came here because Morris , his father was in Harley 's family, Jimmy 's mothers family and he followed her. Gilbert has not given money for Kalki, but gave cock and spear.
Orson 's compound. Debbie mother of Owen came back to her deceased husbands compound when Klaus died to live with her son.
Jake brought corn at Mbashoa as he is Nyena Nyu to Archibald . His mother had same father as Archibald .
Marmaduke came to live with Bartholomew who was his father's mother's brothers daughters son, as he was ill in Mbarr
Niall makes guinea-corn medicine for Tigul
Man Theobald is same Mana Hiram . Hiram was younger brother of Theobald . Bartholomew is son of Theobald . All of Tigul fight together this includes the strangers. They act as unit. Bartholomew was Kassala but because he became to old gave job to Niall . (Later genealogy shows that Bartholomew was son of Job , who was son of Theobald , who had brother Jeffrey . Theobald was son of Kelly . All of Theobald s sons other than Job were taken by Fulani. Jeffrey has many descendants in Tigul among others Milton , Jake , etc.
Emlyn came from Yambap, says he still belongs there, though living in Tigul. His kin in Yambap helped him with bridewealth. Ronnie gave him only a shilling. He has paid one pound five shillings and a cock and a spear.

July 10th Adrian on Marriage

Adrian says that the girl says how much bridewealth is to be. Father may say it it is too high or too low and veto it. Often bridewealth set too high and when it is brought after two children are born or one walks by himself, the father of the bride gives some back to groom. Adrian says bridewealth should not be returned. In pre European times it was 5 or six native hoes. Adrian thinks it bad to try and get it back.


In past used to get metals for making hoes form Titon people. The metal was in the form of native hoes, that is Titon people made the hoes. After hoes were no longer good, then they were made into spears. Used to pay about 3 chickens for a hoe to Titon people. Neither Adrian , Gregory or Archibald know where Titon got hoes or iron. They used to buy shield from Mverrup, they would give two hoes for one shield. Frederick says that they used to make thread and from this loin cloth. These they would sell in in strips of 6 for 2 hoes. They would sell them to Dembe, Titon, Mang, Koma. These towns did not know how to make cloth. Frederick still sells a good deal of his production to foreigners. Recently sold some to Dembe. Frederick and Archibald say that cowrie shells were sometimes used for money.


Cutting up cow were Hugo (Tiket) Robin (Ndiel) Kent (Tigul) York (Tscharl) The first thing cut was stomach and underparts. Ian says that this will be given to chief to be eaten by big people. Kassala from Tscharl said one back leg to Tiket and Ndiel one foreleg to Tscharl and Tigul. Wakili does much of butchering. Rathbone gives many instructions, but when we asked him what part he would get he said big people would decide. Actually Rathbone seemed to make many decisions. Internal pts. all divided according to his directions and no one complained. The internal pts. divided equally among all hamlets. Rathbone given heart and tail. Obidiah given head. They were going to give it to him with the neck on but the Kassalas from Tscharl said that they must cut neck off and divide it otherwise perhaps some might not get meat.
Meat for Ndiel divided in Frederick s compound the next day. Most given to those who worked, according to the number of days that they worked. Chest divided between Archibald , Frederick and Adrian . Most cutting done by Robin . Frederick divided the chest into 3. One young man was forgotten and he was given part of big man portion. The liver was given to big men. Frederick offered Dyson a part of the big mans meat, but he refused. Cadogan , Clint , Ibrahim , and Dyson given a part of big mans meat, as gift not through right. Frederick is the one who gave these gifts. Not much excitement. As a rule only one man from each compound present, and he took meat for all compound. However each part was named as belonging to a special person a man who had worked. Big men, that is the three got as much as anyone, that is a person who had worked for the three days.


Only women had appeared by 12:30 with exception of Ian . Hoed out weeds and broadened ridges for guinea-corn. Corn now about six feet high, and is growing about three feet apart. It is planted in ridges going N.S. Ridges are about 1 1/2 feet wide when widened for guinea-corn and about 1 ft. high Men came about 1:30. Six men and 2 women, these came from Gembu were brothers of the man who married Ian 's sister. They came singing song saying that Ian had called them and they had come. They called me Guanama as in this context Ndiel people are their in laws. They marched straight through the field greeting no one, went directly to corn beer pot, sat down drank beer and chatted. They gave Ian some of the beer. One of the men had made rain medicine. Gembu people called those neighbouring fields as well as women working on Ian s field to come and drink. The girl that Gembu man married had same father but different mother from Ian . The real brother in law started work first. He worked very hard as if under pressure.

July 15. JOHNSON SAYS {on land}

Younger people help older ones with food, because younger ones were fed older ones when small. If his younger brothers did not help him on his farms he would be vexed but could not make them do so.
Johnson says that big people own all of the farms. Marcus has farms but he, Johnson , showed them to him. He says that he showed Nyap where to work. Palm wine trees divided in same way, Johnson says he owns them all as he is the big man. If they sell palm wine must give him part of the money or they will give him part of wine if they drink it. When the oldest man dies the next oldest get all of the farms and he distributes according to needs. Long time ago sold farms but no more.
When I told him that Ian had said that he could sell his land even if Frederick did not agree, he said maybe this was so, but if he did this Frederick or his successor would not give many farms to Ian 's sons to work when he died.
Johnson says that big people show men farms for the three year cycle. After this he can shift them around, if he wishes. Johnson thought of doing this, that is shifting S. Zielinski , Elton and Marcus out when they gave him trouble, but decided against it or they would go away and this he did not want. He said if he had done so they would have gone to their father's place. He says that he has heard of older brothers taking farms away from their juniors, but he doesn't want to talk about it as this is bad fashion.


Ian 's in laws stayed all night and will work farms today. Ian gave them corn beer after work finished. Singing lasted until late into night. Ian gave 14 pots and a small cock and some of the meat that he had gotten from Mission work. They worked until 3:30 before going back to Gembu. Worked on mounds and planted guinea-corn.


Adrian s wife says that she gives him 3d for fixing handles on carrying basket which she sells. To the best of my knowlwedge she has made 9 in past and one and a half months. She sells them for 2sh 3d to 2sh 6d. When asked whether women should work farms or not, she said that it would be bad if they didn't, also said that it would be bad if men didn't work them also.


He has made 15 pots of beer for Kwurum which is coming to work his farms tomorrow.


The mountain belonged to Jules and the farms to big men of Frederick s family. Erik , Maurice then Frederick . Jules died then Thornley was big man.
If water spoils farms he calls all of his kin group to come and fix it. If a member of his family does not have enough he shows him some more farms. When Jules came no one else was here and he took land that he wanted. He says that Frederick s big father and his came at same time. They came from Kwabira during period of Fulani troubles.
He showed Garth farms which later Garth showed to Martin . Garth gives him nothing. Nyap was given farms by Theobald to work by Adrian . He knows that long ago bought and sold farms, but that was before his time. He says if Archibald ,Gregory , Aubrey , Herbert , etc., want to sell farms they must ask him. He cannot sell his without consent of big men of kin group.


Archibald says that he doesn't have to ask anyones permission to sell his farms. When asked whether he would ask Adrian he said not with emphasis. Thor has bought farms from Edward . He paid four hoes. He then sold a half of it as it was a big farm to Jonathan from Yambap for 2 hoes. Jonathan gave it to Desmond his real sister's son when she wed Cosmo . She bore Adrian and Gregory . Now Gregory works this farm.


All Mambila men like women, no permanent homosexuals. One man at Mang never got married. His name was Curt . He burned his hand in a fire and could not work farms, so women would no marry him, even though he tried to marry some.
Boys before getting married have wet dreams, they dream of sleeping with women. Some masturbation is known though practiced alone, that is no mutual masturbation. It is neither good not bad. No sex play between two men. Doesn't know whether women masturbate. Women have dreams of intercourse. When he was younger he used to dream he was sleeping with women. Never dreams of sleeping with mother or sisters. One boy at Mang dreamt that he was sleeping with mother and this shook him. He told people in house and refused to go back to sleep that night.
No word for masturbation. Girls not allowed to ask man to sleep with them. Coitus interruptus practiced to avoid having children before marriage but rarely done and looked askance upon. Parents not vexed if unmarried girls have children. Not bad thing to sleep with girl before marriage.


The work was to broaden mounds in preparation for planting guinea-corn. In broadening the mounds the weeds are covered but not necessarily removed.
Participants: Alexander (Brett s compound.), Jess from Vokude, Alkali (Herbert s) Mavis (Tscharl Fytton s compound) Catriona (Ezra s) Barry (Caspar s compound) (Joseph Keen s compound in Mission) Thor (Archibald s) Denzil (Adrian ) Denzil is trying to win special cup by working very hard. Discussion between Denzil , Nash and Barry , they count number of ridges that each has done. Denzil did not work but there is some argument and Barry claims that he did more. Finlay ignores argument. Mainly discussion between Denzil and Njurala. Count number of ridges each did.
The Kwurum includes, Ian , Finlay , Herbert , Thor , Denzil , Buchanan , Gelngui, Lindsey , Caspar and Ezra
July 17. Jed returned from Mbamga saying he likes it better here as he is better fed.
July 17 Kwurum for FINLAY
Herbert drank first, Ezra second, 3rd Joseph Keen , Ian , Denzil , Buchanan , Thor , Caspar , Reuben , Finlay . They brought enormous pot holding about seven normal pots. Began to drink from this before giving pot to big men. Kwurum members drank from a very big calabash holding three times normal amount. 2 pots given to big people.


Reason prefer exchange is children belong to father. He wants exchange restored. Usually exchanged full sister, however can also exchange real brothers children, this only true if parents exchange. Some women married with bridewealth some with exchange. A man could not exchange real daughter to get for himself, but could exchange daughter to get wife for younger brother. Would exchange more than one sister and get several wives, but not more than two.
Your younger brother had preference in inheriting your exchange wife, but if non-available any kinsman could inherit her. Big people of kin group would tell her who to marry. Usually widow agreed but if she did not and paired marriage still in existence then it was broken. Big man of kin group had to agree to exchange. Andrei could use Lucas or Parker 's daughter but these two would have to agree. No gifts given in exchange, but chicken cooked for groom if he comes to visit. Prospective groom would send a sister, to ask father of girl to let him marry daughter, would not ask big man of kinship group first. The prospective groom might send girl he wished to exchange on this errand or another sister.

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