First people to make beer are Mbalo town behind Mbamga. Mbamga next Yambap, Mverrup, and Gembu do next all on same day. Shoap, behind Vokude does next, then Vokude then Warwar. When Vokude is finished they tell Johnson and Archibald (because they have Bel medicine). On next market day big Jujus come and dance in the field at Ndiel, then go behind fence. Behind fence Archibald brings soft mud and the people there lick with tongue, and then some is put on their chests. First it is given to Jujus and then others. Then Frederick brings Yung bell. Adrian talks saying bell will kill witches, the Archibald talks, actually Archibald talks first, when they talk Frederick rings bell. Archibald and Adrian bring guli grass, Adrian s is for Tschuk medicine, Archibald 's for Bel medicine. Jujus dance furiously. All people led by Archibald go to Ezra s compound. They sing there and he gives them corn beer. Jujus dance. Archibald sings a song, then wrestles with Ezra , this is for medicine. They can go to any compound that they like after Ezra s, and sing and wrestle. Then go to Tiket. Given mud and grass by Johnson . Then go to Foster s compound, given corn beer. Drink. Johnson sings a song, wrestles with Foster . Then anyone can wrestle. Jujus then dance. Johnson leads the to his compound and he and Nyap (t) give them beer. Then many wrestle. Young men wrestle on the dance field. Before both Tiker and Ndiel used to look at Mvur at this stage, but don't anymore. Man who used to do it is dead. They wrestle on Market day and two following days. The evening of third day Jujus come and beg food from women. Tiker Jujus come here to play, but not for medicine.

Ian 's Wives.

First Stephanie -Dyson s compound. One child Rosemary Sleeps at Dyson s place. Stephanie left Ian . he had only given small things, and got them back. If man wants to marry Rosemary , he will work for Ian , because Ian worked farms for Stephanie 's family. If Rosemary marries Ian will get cock and spear. Bridewealth will go to Stephanie 's brothers who has same mother as Stephanie . Dyson is more distant brother. She only stayed a few months.
Second Beth . Adrian 's sister. When she heard that Ian had married Stephanie she came to Ian 's house. He had daughter with her, but she that is child died at 1 1/2 years. This woman was a witch, she refused to take Li medicine. She married Rathbone then died. He did not give any cargo for her as he had conceived her in town. She stayed about four months, with him. He worked farms before marrying her. She had been married before.
3rd. Donna (Christian Name Elizabeth )
>From Ndarrup. She had been married before. He gave small gifts, but did not give 10 fowl or six hoes. Once child died a boy about three. He worked and will work farm for her family. He gave a fowl and a spear. He paid £1 about a year ago. Also has given 3 fowls, one was cooked and eaten, one was eaten only by Donna 's mother. When he bore Sarah , he gave a fowl for Mavulup medicine, this done for every child. Either man or woman can make medicine. Just recently he gave fowl and spear. Later he will give £2 and still later £4. Then he will buy a male goat. Kill it, cook it, call all of the big people of her family and his and eat goat. Goat is last thing to be given. He gave five shillings for Joe and 5 shillings for Shirley . Won't give anything for Sarah . Nowadays they sometimes give the father of the bridge a cap and trousers and shirt, cloth for bridge and her mother. Give twenty rings for girl and also £1. When she is about grown groom must give £2. Then oil and ten shillings, and two shillings worth of palm wine. Then takes spear and fowl. The woman comes with her brothers. First night they sleep at the house of one of bride's brothers. Deposit girl at husbands house and go and sleep in other house of compound. Husband gives bride 5 shillings before she agrees to sleep with him. Rub her with camwood. Give 5 shillings when was off camwood. Put on new rings. Give her brothers who have come 3 cooked fowls. Brothers of groom and sisters, lead brothers of bride and her sisters out to the road. After 2 or three weeks bride takes 2 fowls to her father with palm wine. One fowl and wine made to Tschuk medicine. Bring 12 fowls to brides parents. Also now bring £5 or £6 pounds. Kill goat and cook it and brings to meet brides father. Then finished. If child born and lives gives brides parent 5 shillings. Brides parents get all of the bridewealth for one of the daughters.
If you have not given all bridewealth for your wife, you don't get it when your daughter marries. To make marriage legal you give cock and spear. If your wife leaves you, you can either get bridewealth back, keep children but give bridewealth for children to wife's family, or keep the children. Leave the bridewealth with her kin, and when your children marry keep the bridewealth.
Now with the court you can keep children, claim back bridewealth and also keep the bride wealth given for your daughters.

Father of Archibald and Mvu medicine

Farms often subdivided in inheritance. Strangers cannot buy farms as they may leave town. Garth given farms by Adrian and Frederick . Frederick gave because Garth Nyena Nyu and Adrian gave them because he that is Garth was Nyena Nyu to Frederick . If Garth has sons they will inherit his farms, however he cannot sell them nor can his children. The sons of Frederick could take farms away if they needed them. People would not take farms away just out of badness as he cooks corn beer and helps others. Strangers are really wanted and not troubled as they make corn beer for all and strengthen village. If Garth did many bad things, then they might send him away.
Blair was sent away as he was a witch. Ian says that Archibald bought farms from Frederick 's family.

Why Archibald wrestles with Ezra ?

He says so that others can wrestle. Ezra 's father had Bel medicine and this is why it is done and why they go there. Harold is oldest son of Theo but lives too far away, so they go to Ezra 's. Wrestling done so that crops grow well. Foster and Johnson wrestle for same reason.
Archibald gives people mud so that no one gets sick, Jujus carry so much medicine with them, if you don't take mud and watch them playing you will get sick, your eyes would turn, that is you would get dizzy.
Jujus go to Tiket because their fathers before them did this. If it rains only one goes, if no rain all go. Big Jujus of Tiket don't come here, medicine of Tiket has no more power. Shoas from Tigul come to Ndiel, those from Tscharl to Tiket.
Yung Bell - Harold , Gregory , Rodney , Archibald
Those with yung medicine - Frederick , Harold , Nathan

May 28th Adrian says.
Knows God made the world, made Mambilas, chickens, Europeans and all things. He does not know whether God is still working or not. They pray to Gods for crops and hunting and to avoid illness, but he doesn't know whether this is to ancestors or Big God.
Harold says.
Yung medicine was given him by his father's father. Given to him and father at same time. Father's father was given one chicken to eat then and later more chickens and hoes. Cadogan s marital history.
His present wife had three previous husbands, 1 Fulani husband, one Mambila from French side and Cadogan . One daughter with man from the French side.
Cadogan has had four wives and no children.
Yvette - Fulani woman no children
Sally " " " "
Virginia " " " "
He grew up in Banyo and came back to Warwar very late. Fulani captured his father. He followed his father later. His father had a Fulani wife. She had 3 children, one daughter married Emir of Banyo, father got no bridewealth.
When English pushed Germans out of Banyo they told all strangers to go back where they came from. Later he returned to Warwar.
Archibald s wife Dorra {sic}. Had had only one spouse. 4 children died four are alive. One girl married at Mverrup, also another girl married there. One girl here and also Thor . One girl died at the time of her marriage, one son at 17, one son at seven and one at two.
Theobald 's wife has only been married to him. No children
Nyap's wife
Nyaps wife has not been married before. Madam's only child.

Frederick s marital history.

First married Denise (Tiker-Cecil 's sister) Her brother used her in exchange and took her away. At this time she had a little boy still being carried. Lance had not exchange for her.
Gabriella from Yambap. One son and a daughter. Son dead, girl married at Mbamga. This was exchange. They broke exchange and Frederick took his sister back. Exchange broken because Frederick 's sister did not want to stay with man at Yambap. Did not get any of his daughter's bridewealth.
Anthea - Vokude. One daughter about six when she left him for other man. Not Exchange. He got no bridewealth back.
Chantal from Ndiel Adrian 's family. One son about three, when she left Frederick . Not exchange.
Sandra from Yambap. 3 children two died. Daughter is married at Ndarrup. Woman left Frederick , he neither got his bridewealth back or anything when girl married.
Gerard from Yambap. 2 children both died. Exchange. He gave his real sister.
Graeme married Fiona . 2 children died, both males one at 3 and one at one year.
Graeme had previously wed Moira from Mbamga. They had son who now lives in Mbamga. She left him and married in Mbamga and died. He gave £1 6sh. 6 chicken, cock and spear. Father made her leave him. Got nothing back. Hopes to marry Moira 's sister.

At Ian s communal farming. To build mounds.

Garth , Irving , Neal , Warren , Graeme , Crystal (Ian sister was only woman)
Samuel Zielinski 's sister took sasswood three times and lived. Sisters name was Katie . Len gave Li to her. Len lived in Tscharl
In Warwar dialect: Kas = district
Gunduma = village
Unguwe = hamlet

Le Commandant of Banyo J. Sablayrolle had census made of Mambila on French side.
Total figures

March 1948



Fertilizer tree used by Mambila is called Karu by Fulani is a kind of pigeon pea.
"Les Sauvages D'Afrique" by Maurice Briault 1943 Payot
pg 198 "Cameroun L'Aruspice du Ngam. Ngam est le nom utilise par les Basas.
These notes taken early.

Samuel Zielinski on chieftainship.

He was chief for over five years. Johnson asked him to be chief, Don Lawan made him chief, Mr. Moore was D.O. at time.
Kassala from Ndarrup took complaint to Mallam Taffi at Mbamga. He told M. Taffi to report Samuel to D.O. Kassala's name was Ira , who is still Kassala, Kassala from Mverrup also complained. Samuel Zielinski went to salute Don Lawan, Alkali told him to stay as case was coming up. Ndarrup and Mverrup people came and case judged. Samuel returned money that he had taken to Alkali who returned it to the people of Ndarrup and Mverrup. Samuel sentenced to six months in prison by Alkali, he served the sentence.
The grounds for complaint according to Samuel .
Mr Schneider was missionary at Warwar. He needed carriers to go. Samuel asked Ndarrup to send 3 carriers they did not come. Schneider goes to U.S., when he returns he needs more carriers. Samuel asks for 20 from Ndarrup, 20 from Mverrup and 20 from Warwar. All came from Warwar, only 12 from Ndarrup and none from Mverrup. When Schneider learned this he said that he would have them put in prison. Headman from Mission went to talk to Alkali at Mbamga, explained the situation and the latter told him to summons Ndarrup and Mverrup people. These feared and asked Samuel to stop the case. Samuel said that Ndarrup and Mverrup people must give him money to buy horse. Samuel said that he would help them in many cases, but could not in this case. Ndarrup and Mverrup people held meeting insisted that he help them in this one and collected money for horse. Ndarrup gave £9. Mverrup gave £7.15sh. Warwar gave nothing. Horse not bought. Money given so case would be stopped so he stopped it. The Alkali stopped it, but was not bribed.
Previously there had already been a case of bribery. A sanitary inspector named Mervin came to vaccinate people. He called Warwar Ndarrup and Mverrup people, that is JSamuel called them. Inspector says all should keep compound clean. Sees Ndarrup people with dirty compound, says will call them to Gembu. Mervin given £6 as bribe. Alkali heard of this and sent police for Samuel and Mervin , he took the £6, and Alkali said no one to be bribed again. This was joined on to above case against Samuel .
Samuel Zielinski discusses other things.
Elton is older brother of Samuel . (I believe that this is woman palaver that S . brought to me. Alice is the woman in question. She had married to a man at Kilatin a man called Eli . Eli drove Alice away and kept children, did not ask for bridewealth to be returned. Alice took a fowls from Eli , who reported the theft to Mbamga court, and asked for the fowl back. Alice had brought the fowls to Warwar. She was already married to Elton . She brought fowls to Mbamga.Court took fowls from her and fined her £1. Fowls given to Eli . Zebedee her real brother from Tiker paid the fine. They fined Elton £2, Samuel says for nothing, but court because he took woman. When they returned to Warwar Alice did not go to Elton , but went back to her brother. Mallam Taffi was in charge of the court. The Yerima of Vokude asked Elton for the £2. He is acting chief of Vokude as the chief is blind. Elton said why should he pay money as he does not have woman. Alice went back to Eli who did not want her. She then lived with Kirk , Eli s brother. Elton had had child with Alice , whose name is Lynn a boy. The son became ill so Alice brought him back to Warwar and asked Elton to make medicine for it. His father Phillip made the medicine called Bohublur medicine, Johnson also made Lur medicine for it. The Yerima of Vokude said that he had paid the fine of £2. and that is why he wanted Elton to pay him. Elton was not sure that he had paid, but Yerima kept after him and finally he paid. Alice is now married in Vokude. She has the son. Elton wants the woman and the child, Alice says that she does not wish to come back.

Name Giving.

My real older brother is the one who names my child, usually that of a deceased ancestor. My older sister can also do it. Father and or mother also give a name. The latter three can give additional names to that given by brother or instead of him. Mother's family always gives a name of its own, usually this done by mo's father. Older brother usually gives the name of a member of kin group who has recently died, it may be the name of the father of the child if he has recently died. Mother's family cannot call you by name given by father's group, nor can they give you a name of recently dead member of kin group. If you like the name of a person not of your kin group you can give it to your junior bro. Child, even if they live in same hamlet. But you can't give the name of a kinsman if he is still alive, also can't give name of male ancestor to a girl. Many names given only to females and others to males. Mother's family must give a good name.
Your child must begin crawl before being given a name. The child is brought along with a rat to the person who is to name. The namer blesses child by spitting on his stomach. both mother and father come to ceremony as well as others from father's group. The rat is used as payment, this is the only name paid for, other names given for nothing. Name can be given on any day but market day.
As Frederick had exchanged his sister for his wife therefore his wife names Joe , Ian 's son in place of Frederick himself. If she had married with bridewealth, then she could not have done this. If a name of the patrilineal group is chosen must give fowl to older kin. Ian 's mother named Sara . Rat given. She could have chosen name from among her maternal kin. Only give name of patrilineal kin to brother's children not sister's children.

Tooth Chipping.

This is done about adolescence. Ibrahim did it for John . If one cries they laugh at you, if you don't have it done girls will laugh at you. It is called Ngegeli

Dispute April 24th at Night.

The man from Tscharl is called Murray . The Man from Dembe John does not know name. Man from Dembe was drunk, he forced his way into a house where there were two women. Women asked who he was, he did not answer. They asked several times he wouldn't say anything. They shouted and Murray came. Women told him to hold man until fire brought. and they could see who he was. Murray said that when he came in door almost entirely shut, so he thought that man inside was a witch. When he came in he said, "if you be witch, I be witch too, and if you be man, whatever kind of medicine you have, I have it also. He then held the man and the women brought fire and saw man. Murray hit the man with his hand, then took him out and him four times with his cutlass. He cut the string that held his loincloth and those on his head and string that holds knife. They took all that he had away. Man ran away. Brought all of the things to Frederick s compound and gave them to him. Frederick asked Murray what had happened in the house and he explained. Man said that he was drunk and was looking for a place to sleep. He claimed that he answered women and stood just inside the door. Frederick told Murray that he should have called Dyson as he is the big man of the area. They asked the man from Dembe to swear on the bell that he had not fornicated with the women. He swore that he had gone into the house with Man's skin not medicine or witches. They asked Murray to swear bell as he had accused other of witchcraft, by saying that if he was a witch so was he. Murray swore that he went in in answer to woman's cry and went in as a man, and he also said while drinking bell that he had seen the man as a man and not a witch or using medicine. Previously Murray had said that he had seen man using witch medicine. When the man heard Murray swearing to bell he started to go off to Gembu to charge him with having previously lied. Frederick s wife stopped him. Long discussion. Finally Murray took the man into the bush alone and is said to have apologised and agreed to pay pound after Frederick said that he should and also a fowl.


V. Zielinski says if Archibald dies Thor will get his cargo, if Ian Parker dies Clifford and V. Zielinski will get cargo, If Frederick dies, Aylmer , Mbon and Petros will get cargo. John says if Frederick dies Langley will get some cargo as Flora was Frederick s sister and was married by Exchange.
Adrian says his MEMIN is Caspar , Nathan , Robin , Clint , Finlay , Dyson , Gregory , Rodney , Cadogan , Harold . He says Archibald not MEMIN but of MAN.
Frederick says his MEMIN: Charles , Mallam Taffi, Ron , Rupert (Kabri) Garth , Martin , Petros , Alwyn
Frederick says Ian 's Memin is Andrei , Craig , Parker ,Lucas , Clifford , Clint , Irving , Lyndon (Kara)
Clifford says: Andrei , Craig , Parker , Lucas , Clifford , Clint , Irving , and Lyndon (Kara) are his Memin
Clint says if he died Rathbone would divide the cargo. Bryce of Tscharl would get a part as his father came from Bryce 's group. His mother from Adrian 's family. Nyap says that if he died, Roland and Neal would inherit, if Roland died he and Neal would inherit, if Neal died he and Roland would inherit.
John says that Elton will get most of Johnson 's cargo.
Johnson says that Elton , Nyap (T) Marcus , Zielinski and Ibrahim all of one MEMIN.
Cahill says, Cahill , Cecil , Diarmuid , Meiron (farms), Jem (farms) Jeremy (farms) all one Memin.
Cahill says Hal , Percy , Haldane , Jarod (Percy s sibling) are one Memin of Man Neil .
Pearson and Lorcan of one Memin also.
Hugo says: Nevin , Ned , Soames , Ridley , Douglas , Ritchie , Bartlett , Hugo , Gilmour , Xavier , Craig , Henry , Jason , Quentin , Karel , are of his MEMIN, also Eric (Gembu) and Tarrant and Taggart of Vokude. Eric s mother from Memin. Tarrant father from Memin Taggart 's mother from Memin. Mother of Eric was Jon s sibling. Andrea father was Eric , Taggart s mother was daughter of Ned .
Deverell says He, Winston and Willard share in each others cargo.
Nyap says if he dies, Clint ,Marcus , Elton , Joshua , Johnson , Ibrahim , Dudley , Kingsley , Knox , Kennedy are of his Memin. Dudley and Kingsley sleep on farms.

Paul Gebauer's Data on Missionaries in Warwar.

Gebauer's visit to Mambila before 1934 cannot be recorded as they were illegal. Came along with German missionaries.
1937 First official tour and twice each year afterwards, sometimes more often.
1938 Dunger, G. first tour.
1939 Dungers settle at Warwar to be interrupted during war years, 1941-45
1940 Miss Koppin nursing sister settles.
1944-5-6, Mr and Mrs. Earl Ahrens and Miss Hilda Tobert, Canadian.
1947-51 Schneider
1953 K Goodman and wife
In 1929 Rev A. Orthner from Detroit Michigan crossed into Mambila are from Mbaw area, twice in 1930 then 1931, 32. Rev J. Sieber (Wute expert) visited occasionally.

From Johnson May 29

Johnson was vexed because people from Ndiel had told me things about Tiket, and this was reason he did not want to talk to me.
He got Yung medicine from his father when he was still small. He does not know where it came from.
He got Bell medicine (called Gir at Tiker) from an older male kinsman called Anthony .
It was given to him as he was oldest male of group.
Yung medicine Taboos. The day before he makes medicine he must be given first part of the food that is prepared in his compound. His soup must be served in new pots. He eats no European salt the day before either, cannot sleep with wife night before, no peppers can he eat. For Bell medicine taboos are the same.
Wrestling with Foster is not for medicine, he does this and sings songs as an announcement that everyone can now wrestle.
Ndiel people come to Tiket when he makes his Bell medicine to benefit from it, as his stronger than theirs, he doesn't know why his strongest. Yung medicine he has given to Nyap. Gir to Karel , Ibrahim ,Oliver , Sacheverell , Ned , Marcus , Elton , Bartlett and Hugo . He doesn't know who made the world, but said maybe it was Tschang. He says the dead people are called Maku. They know little about Tschang and during some of the conversation it seemed almost as if he were speaking of a high God. They never ask this Tschang for help as know nothing of him.
Incest. Johnson says if man marries or sleeps with his sister both will get sick. Johnson doesn't know who were first to come to Tiker, where they came from or who were first to come to Warwar.
Mbon, who sleeps in Frederick s compound says.
His Ya (girl friend) slept at Robin s compound, she was Georgie s sister Denzil . He gave ten rings, The girls said that they were all old ones and told him to get new ones. He got no new ones. and she took none. Gave her meat and small carrying basket. Worked farms for her mother and father many
times.They gave him nothing in return. She was about Pippa , Clint 's daughter when she died. He was given nothing, she died last year.
Neal has a girl but hasn't given her anything, her name is Celia and she sleeps near Ian 's compound.

Nyaps marriage

He gave cock and a spear. One chicken to make Tschuk medicine. 2 chickens when Madams born 13 shillings, gave mother one fowl, gave Mavis s older sisters 5 shillings. Planted guinea-corn with her parents twice and weeded twice, he did this work for Adrian not for her parents. Worked only once for her parents. He must eventually give £5 10 sh. + 3 sh.
Nathan 's wives:
Barbara (Colin 's mother) came from Warwar. Had the following children with her.
. Kathleen a girl now 16 sleeps in compound.
2. Maria girl died about 3
3. Maria girl died about 2
4. no name male child died in arms.
5. " " " " " " "
6. " " female " " " "
Barbara died in this compound married to him.
Flora is his present wife (Frederick 's sister) have no children.

Adrian s marital history

Julia born in Tscharl Married for bridewealth, she left him married in Tiket and died there.
With her had: Denzil , Sonia a girl married at Tigul, and a girl married at Gembu after bearing 2 children.
2nd Wife Sharon from Vokude. Had a girl Mandy who is married at Gembu. This was bridewealth She left him and went to die at Vokude, no bridewealth back.
3rd Wife, Samantha exchange from Vokude. She died bearing a son her first. He did not take his sister back, but they gave him a daughter of his sister. This girl is about to be married.
4th Wife. Sacha from Mbamga Exchange. Died while bearing a child which also died. They promised him a girl but not given yet.
5. Eileen from Kumver. Had a daughter whose name he forgot. She is married at Gembu. He got bridewealth. His marriage to Eileen was Bridewealth.
6. Laura from Gembu. Children Lemuel , son, another son died very tiny. This was bridewealth marriage, Laura died here.
7. Danielle from Mang. No children no exchange left him and returned to Mang.
8. Stephanie from Lemin, no children no exchange.
Dougal from Adrian compound.
Married Joanne from Ndiel who was Eugene 's daughter.
A son died in arms. Conceived another but Joanne went off to Titon to get married. He thinks that the child who is Beverley should be his. Not exchange marriage got no cargo.
2nd wife. Marilyn (Mang) He bore seven children with her. 5 died, 4 boys and a girl. 2 sons alive: Greg sleeping here and Rosie who is living with Marilyn s father. Marilyn died here.
3rd wife. Beatrice (Tscharl) No children, bridewealth, she left to marry at Mang. He got all of his bridewealth back
4. Myra (Mverrup) not exchange. one daughter died in arms, one son at about a year and a half, and another son in arms. Belinda a daughter is now three. Marriage still exists.
5. Adrienne (Gembu) not exchange. One son 3 lives here one son died in arms. She left him and married away. He got his cargo back and kept child.
6. Deborah from Yambap not exchange, no children she is still here.
Dougal says that the reason wives often leave is that husband brings back a new wife.
Jake from Brett s compound known as Marvin . < br> Has been married to wife Petra for two years, this is his first wife. Has a son about two months old.

Finlay Marital history.

His wife born in Kabri. She was not married before. Been married about 4 1/2 years. No children not exchange. Bridewealth. She knows that 1 cock and one spear paid and doesn't know what else. He gave her no rings nor no baskets, but gave her cloth. When she married him he lived in Dorofe. <H4>June 1. Ian says.Adrian and Frederick gave Garth farms. <br> Herbert<!-- Person#1905Name#1--> given farms by Ian and Frederick . He did not give Ian Tschor Halemi as Dorothy's father's mother came from Ndiel. She was from Frederick 's family. Father of Dorothy's father came from Tiker. Her mother came from Mbamga. Dorothy returned to Ndiel after first marrying away as in the past one of the children of marriage was given to the mothers family. Usually give girl child but can give male if no girls. They give a girl, even if she is the only one and rest boys as men are strong and would want to return to their father's. Herbert gives Ian no food for use of farm. It is hard to live in wife's town as she would not agree to your getting new wife. When Dorothy 's real brother died, Lyndon , they said that she had to come back and live in his compound.
People sometimes move compound because they are hounded by illness either to themselves or chickens. Big reason to move is illness. Some people sleep in isolated compound through fear of witches. Oldest son usually builds own compound, younger stays in old compound. If only one son he should stay. This is to help father when old. There is lots of pressure brought to bear so that at least one son stays with father, usually youngest.
Fights between Man according to Ian .
Last fight. Roland put Clifford 's cloth in the mud. Clifford hit Roland . Big discussion, Rolf and Nyap wanted to fight Frederick 's family. Adrian and Frederick stopped them from doing this. No payment made. In these case only fight with walking sticks, no spears.
Shaming songs usually sung to neighbouring hamlets, but may do so also to other Man from same hamlet but not so much or so violent. Now they are singing song to man in Tiket who slept with his son's wife, this is Hal . Hal married Adrian 's sister. They found out when the children got sick and woman admitted. Hal 's child is Irving . He had long argument. In olden days the son might have killed father, in this Irving just threatened his father.
It is not too bad if younger brother uses older brothers woman. However he must give fowl to make Sho medicine, its bad but not too bad. It is very bad, much worse if older brother uses younger brothers wife.
Sometimes Man in one hamlets will fight. In very old times might use shields and spears, but not now. Now usually don't fight at all, usually sit down and discuss. These fights mainly about farms.

Nyap of Ndiel's marital history.

Married first Judy (Charles 's sister from Ndiel.)
She conceived when still at mother's house. It was miscarriage. She left Nyap to marry Neil , Cecil s son, had a child there. She says that the child is Nyaps. He gave to her family: Worked on their farms, gave salt, meat oil. Gave spear and cock. Did not give goat. He started when Judy was small. They gave him £3 back. Some people said that he should summons them but as both from same village, he did not want to. They said that Nyap was sterile which vexed him very much. Her mother made her leave him, because she did not conceive with him. She stayed one year. While Judy still there he wanted to marry Mavis so he was not too vexed when she left. He was already trying Mavis Neal is beginning to try Celia , and is beginning to work farm for Celia s mother. Gave her meat and salt.
Charlie s father drove her mother and Charlie away. When she was sick he refused to make medicine, and never gave anything for the mother. Now the father wants her back but Nyap refuses. Simon has not given Charlie or Nyap anything as yet.

Clifford 's marital history.

Sybil from Kabri. Three sons died in arms, one daughter 3 sleeps here and one son 18 mos also.
Victoria , Yambap, second wife. One son one year lives here.
Apparently the two wives have had many disputes. First Sybil went to Yambap to stay.

Clifford says.he plants small field of guinea-corn after Adrian at planting time. Griffith 's father Gawain , gave him the Tschuk medicine which makes him do this. He gave his father a god in return which was killed and eaten. His father showed a number of people, but they decided to let Clifford do it, as when he used it the guinea-corn grew well, if things had gone badly they would have made someone else do it. Duncan tried first but guinea-corn did not grow well. Davey tried next, but elephants and rats ruined some of the crop. Then Clifford tried and it worked well. Tschuk also makes people marry. Adrian 's Tschuk is stronger as he uses Juju, while Clifford only uses grass. If Clifford learned Adrian 's Tschuk he could not marry into Adrian 's family, this is why he doesn't learn Adrian s. (Adrian later denied this). Adrian 's Tschuk helps all of the hamlet even all in the village. This is true of all peoples Tschuk. Clifford Marital history.1. Anita . He gave £;2. 10 sh, 1 cock and 1 spear, £2 to mother. He got nothing back. Had a daughter Lucy who is now three years old. When Anita died he sent her to Yambap, and only recently called her back. Anita died in Yambap, but had not left Andrei . She just went there to have medicine made.
2. Edna (Henry 's sister Tiker)
Edna has conceived but it was a miscarriage. She is still here. Andrei was living in Mverrup when he married her, and he got vexed with at this time with his mother's family as they did not help him with bridewealth. This is why he came back to Warwar. Edna had first been married with Manley of Dyson 's compound. Manley . Andy gave £1 10 sh to Henry , he has to give £2 more. Manley has said that is Andrei and Edna bear fine pikins he will take Andrei 's Marital History.1. Candida Gembu not exchanged. Three sons, one died about 12, one about 8 and one at 6. They would have been about Ian 's age. She died here still married.
2. Forgot her name but came from Gembu, not exchange. No children she left him.
3. Delia Garths sister Gembu not exchange. No children she died here.
4. Forgot her name from Mverrup. Had son Conor who now lives at Lemme with his mother's kin. He is married. She left him.
5. Louisa from Ferdinand . Not exchange. She still with Archibald . Has a daughter Madeleine . who lives here.
6. Dora , from Tscharl exchange.
1. Son Thor . 2. Daughter Suzette . 3. Daughter Gwen . 4. Daughter Liza married at Mverup. 5. daughter Betty married at Mverrup. 5, 6, 7, 8, three sons one died at 17, one at 5 and one at 3.

Thor 's marital history.

Jean<!-- Person#1933--> Gembu not exchange. Has a son and had daughter who died at 7. She left him. They gave him bridewealth back, but he returned it as he thought keeping it was bad.
Amy Gembu. They paid debt with her. One of his sisters bore a child and they took that girl and kept her to help them, she later married there. They gave Amy as return. She is still there. Has a son and a daughter.

Brett 's marital History.

Married Pamela from Tscharl, Obidiah 's sister not exchange. Is still there. She bore two sons and two daughters all died in arms.
Langley says that he has no girl friend.
Archibald says that he gave Bel medicine to Harold as his father had it and died. He also gave it to Neville , Adrian , Gregory , Rodney and Thor . They cannot use it while he is still alive.

Clint 's Marital History.

1. He doesn't remember her name from Ninge. No exchange, no children. He did not like her so sent her away.
2. She died so he doesn't want to tell her name or he might dream about her. Came from Tamnyar. One son died in arms. She died in Tamnyar where she went to have medicine made.
3. Wendy from Tigul had a daughter Kate who is married in Tigul and a son who died in arms. She went and married in Ngubin. Left him because she was ill here.
4. Joyce Tiker.Son Simon , daughter Pippa 16, daughter Nancy who sleeps here. Three daughters and two sons who died in arms. She died here.
5. Lucy from Mverrup. No children no exchange. She was vexed with Meg his other wife and wanted to send her away, so he sent her away instead.
6. Meg from Mverrup. No children still here.
Gunter from Dyson 's compounds marries Alun from Tscharl. This is girl we saw bringing firewood.
Lonnie from Clints compound has no Ya.
Meg (NdunYa's wife) marital History. Has passed menopause.
First married to Michael in Gembu. Had two sons, one is Wilmot at Mverrup and one Lonnie sleeps here. When Michael died she came here. Had three sons and one daughter with Michael , all died in arms.
Alise Simon 's wife has not been married before. <br> Penelope Simon 's sister. Has a boy friend in Mverrup. His name is Pete . Has given nothing, but worked farm many times for Clint .
Sybil (Clifford s wife has not been married before.

Gregory 's marital history

1. Rosalind from Ferdinand not exchange. Had a son and daughter who died in arms. and one daughter Lydia married in Mverrup. Rosalind and married in Vokude. Her brother made her leave.
Kitty Tigul not exchange.
One daughter Dawn married at Tiker to Jeremy . another daughter Lois is helping Dawn with her children. Three daughters died in arms as did two sons.

Reuben 's Marital History. Rodney s compound.

Married Kathie from Vokude not exchange. A son and a daughter died in arms. I believe that one son still alive. She is still here that is the wife.

Charles 's marital History.

1. Maureen - Gembu no exchange. A son died in arms a daughter at age of three. Maureen died here in the compound.
2. Ruby Kara no exchange. One son died at three. She left Charles , as her mother did not want her to stay, he doesn't know why. No cargo returned he did not want it.
3. Charlotte Kabri no exchange. One son died in arms one son still living Dougie . She left him because she did not like him. He did not take back cargo as child sleeps here.
4. Alma Yambap no exchange. Has son Evan who sleeps here, as does Alma .
5. Connie -Herbert s sister not exchange. Has son James and she still here.

Ezra 's marital history.

1. Kerry Gembu not exchange. No children. Left him. Her father was very old and Gembu to him was very far. He gave no cargo as father did not want it.
2. Christine Vokude not exchange.
A daughter died in arms. She left him as her brothers wanted to use her exchange. He did not ask for cargo back.
3. Tate Mbamga. Had six daughters all died in arms except one at 3 years. 2 sons, one died at birth and one at one year.

Hester (Caspar 's wife) marital history.

1. Hugo bridewealth. Two daughters who died in arms. Her brothers told her to leave him as they wanted to exchange her. She agreed as did not like Hugo <br> 2. Ronnie Tigul Exchange. Two sons both sleep here. When Ronnie died she married.
3.Caspar Ronnie 's brother.

Flora (Nathan 's wife) marital history.

Ambrose - Nathan 's brother - not exchange.
1. Kay daughter 16 now
2. Langley son 18 now
3. Andrea daughter married now
4. Son died at 18. 5 daughter died married. 6.7. daughters died in arms. 8 daughter died about eight and 9. daughter died at about six. When Ambrose died she married 2 Nathan . No children
XXXe and Kathleen have no ya so they say.
Pamela Brett 's wife says that they have had four children all are dead.

Ngui medicine described by holder a man from Vokude.

He bought the medicine from Yang people who are Kaka people. Paid £1, 10 fowls and a goat. They taught him in three days.
When men turn into tigers and are hurt either by falling or being hunted he cures them. He takes heart out of chicken and puts chicken heart into wounded mans heart. That is he puts the heart on the wounded man's breast, if man to die heart won't enter, if he is to get better heart goes in. He does not see heart go in. Then he takes net and puts in on mans body and ties it around the man with a string. When medicine made patient must not drink corn beer, when man recovers the medicine man must come and give him a sip of beer so that now he can drink it. If heart of chicken does not make medicine as XXX person will die anyway. If you want you can stop yourself from turning into an Ngui. He cannot tell by looking at people whether they have this power. Has had the medicine for two years. In some cases he tried the heart did not go in, in others it did. Makes same medicine for those who have been bewitched. They should pay a spear, chicken, old hoe and six or seven shillings for this treatment either if they are those turning into Ngui or bewitched.

XXX(Ron ?)'s Marital History.

1. Patricia Tigul When she conceived she left him Pikin died in arms it was boy. Not exchange.
2. Monica Ndiel no exchange. no child, she left him.
3. Melanie Tiket had a daughter who died in arms. Not exchange. Left Ron and married Ndarrup, she did not like Ron anymore.
4. Jessica Yambap. No exchange, no children, still here.
XXXefa has only had his present wife. He lived in Dorofe with his brother, not real brother. His mother's mother and man's mother had same father and mother, Jonty was man's name. But he decided to come back to his father's compound.

XXX(Kitty ?)'s marital history (Gregory s wife)

Stewart Gembu one son died at one year and a daughter who is married. Not exchange. Her brothers did not want her to stay with Stewart so she left. They had plan to exchange her.
Arthur Kabri. Exchange. She did not want to stay with him as he was old man. She broke {exchange}. Arthur took his sister back.
Gregory not exchange.

XXXve (Dougal 's wife) marital history

XXXfang Gembu Had a daughter five. She left him as he treated her badly not giving her XXXings.
Then married Dougal

XXX(Rodney ?)s Marital History.

XXXonve Mverrup Had a daughter who is married in Mverrup. She left him and died almost at once He had not given much as her family wanted to exchange her. They took her away to XXXh. When his daughter married he got a chicken to make Tschik medicine.
XXX. Adele Kabri, Had Abraham , Jude , Baines and Webster who are all here. Also 2 sons and three daughters who died in arms. She is still here, not exchange.
XXX. Betsy Tscharl. Had one miscarriage. Not exchange. Her brothers took her back to exchange.
XXX. Joan Dorofi. One daughter died in arms. This was exchange. Her brothers took her back and he took sister of his back. Her older brother took her back, because the man who had gotten a bride in exchange for her was bad to his older brothers, so he called her back, knowing that Rodney would call back his sister and thus the bad person would lose his wife.

Rathbone on Guinea-corn and Market.

Rathbone went to market to ring bell, to stop people from bringing guinea-corn to Gembu. Fulani people are making trouble at the market there so he hopes by stopping supply to reform them. Also this done to keep guinea-corn for mission labourers. Also to stop local people from settling at Gembu and hence build up local market. This new rule only operative until see how maize grows. Price of guinea-corn same in Gembu as here 4 pound approx for one shilling. Applies to corn and guinea-corn only. He though about it and then consulted Kassalas. They said that it was his affair and that he could do as he liked. One reason that he rang bell was to stop young people from bringing their food out to Fulani camps and sell it there which older people could not do, therefore young got money and old don't. If law broken person would get sick. He would bring cock to Rathbone who would call Kassalas and they would sacrifice it and eat it and then the bell would be rung over person who broke law. The new rule does not apply to any market but Gembu which was big drain on local market. They can now bring food to Gembu market on any day but Warwar market day.

Dyson 's Marital History.

H embu {sic} Yambap. Not exchange no children. Left him for another man at Vokude. Her brother took her to exchange.
Margaret Dorofi No children no exchange . Her brother wanted to exchange her
Jane -Gembu one daughter died in arms. No exchange, her brothers wanted to exchange her, they asked him for sister to make exchange, but he did not have one.
Jenny Tscharl not exchange.
Three sons here, 2 daughters here. 2 daughters died in arms, one daughter died at 2, and one daughter died at four, another died at five and one at six.
Gwen Vokude Exchange.
One daughter Bridget at 4. One daughter Rebecca 3, one daughter Josie 2, Gwen daughter 18 getting married, another daughter 16. 2 daughters died in arms, one daughter died at 8 and one son died a 2.
When Gwen 's marriage arranged they gave him cock and spear. They worked farm. He will give cock and spear to his son. Gunter says that she will get nothing until Gwen has children. Her husband gave her forty new rings, but did not buy beer for her. This is her first marriage. She is having her hair fixed in small knots. Anyone who knows how can do this and will be paid five shillings for the work by grooms group. They are to make special chair for her. Isaac will make it. Her spouse will pay ten shillings for it. Gwen says that Dyson is her first husband. Jenny says Dyson is first husband. Kerry is Violet 's first husband.
Isaac of Dyson compound.
Only has one wife Nora from Ndarrup. Not exchange.
Isaac gave Catriona (girl at Ezra s compound who has his illegitimate daughter-) meat, salt. Worked farm for her mother. Gave her 20 rings. He will marry her, when child able to walk. Wants to marry her as soon as he can.

Francesca (Dyson 's compound.)

First wife. Miranda Yambap. A son died day of birth a daughter died in arms. She left him because she was always sick. He got nothing back, but didn't ask for anything as he said if he had the would have been vexed with him. He had given about £5.
Natalie Tiket (Wayne 's sister.)
Her first marriage. No children yet.
Marriage = Yila
Elopment = Bvul shieni
If the parents of a girl don't agree to a man marrying their daughter, the pair may run away. They very often try and hide in Warwar. They hide for about a week or two, and if the parents don't seem to be angry they go back to his compound together. When they get to his compound, the wife and the big man from his family go to brides compound and offer cock and spear. The girls parents usually are either angry or feign anger while the boys relatives counsel moderation. The father of the girl takes the cock and the spear. The relatives of the brides family also counsel moderation. Shoa medicine is made. Brothers of the bride and the father will tell how much must be paid, the sum is usually more in the case of an elopment. Often much bargaining at this point.
If parents find couple in flight, they beat the girl. Usually the elopers arrange a tryst. If parents are adamant they may ring the bell for the girl, but this rarely done
Female Abduction. Sometimes the family wants the girl to marry a man that she doesn't wish to. The father may send for grooms group to come and take her, by force if necessary. They ring the bell saying Juju will get her if she tries to escape. This happened less than ten years ago Xavier is the husband Margaret is the woman that they took by force. Margaret is daughter of Cecil .
Artie from Mbamga sleeps in Frederick s compound. Frederick s wife is his real sister. He is sick and this is why he has come, doesnt know how long will stay.
Bride Price = Tara Fulani word sometimes used here. By John
Usually bride price not paid until children born. Bride price should be given to girl who passes it onto her parents, but they give it back saying "Nyena sam sede ya wen" "No children I wont eat money" It is only usually paid when children are born to couple. Seems to be about £5.
If bride has real brother he usually gets bridewealth, that is it given to bridge's father who gives it to brother. Father may give some to his brothers and gives a pound to the girls mother. The groom gives a pound and cloth to the mother. John gave this before cock and spear but not all do this. The spear is a special long one.
Before the court period groom did not get his money back in case of divorce.


Even before courts they used to pay five goats for seducing wife of exchange marriage. The husband gets the goats. Your family will help you to pay. The woman confesses when she gets sick. It is only if woman wants to stay with her husband that five goats paid. When the five goats given, the bell rung over husband and wife. Big ant can also tell about seduction. If woman gives wrong name of seducer you can have woman take sasswood. If woman doesn't die then accused has to pay. Nowadays they would go to court and use bell. Guilty party pays as he fears bell. If you sleep with wife of someone in your family you only give chickens. Sleeping with mother is very bad, but no reprisals either sacred or profane. Wife gets vexed if husband sleeps with a married woman.

Josephine died June 5, 1953.

Unfortunately I only learned of this at about 5 P.M. We went over. Adrian , Herbert , Harold , Frederick (came for short time) Boris , Brett and others there. Men sat inside the compound. Most women sat outside across the road. Many women there. When we came Olive and another daughter were wailing. There was small fire burning and lots of firewood ready to be burned. The daughter Olive threw out Argusi seeds corn and guinea-corn. This was for her deceased mother though the chickens ate it fast. Women had removed all jewelry and strings from their waists. Harold took Vurup grass which Buchanan had brought him. He blessed it and threw two bits on the ground, then gave Buchanan and the husband of the other mourner some. He said "As you saw your dead mother in law, your crops will grow well, you will not get sick, if you go hunting you will shoot animals, Kissum". He took small bits and threw them away then put some in their outstretched palms. He slit remaining bit in two, Buchanan did the splitting. Each man got a piece. He told them to throw it under bed in which they sleep. Josephine had been buried about noon. Spectators seemed more serious than I had ever seen them. When we arrived there were 14 men and 17 women. Wailing went on for a long time. Woman had died in the morning. One of the wailers rolled on the ground. However once they were finished formal wailing at end of the compound their wailing ceased and they calmly began to breast feed their children. Lucky seemed to be running the show.
Day after death many people bring fufu and soup. Many people brought food in this case. These gifts brought by outsiders as well as kinsmen. Food also cooked in the compound and given to visitors. No food taboo after death. It is said to be thoughtless to sleep with wife on the night after death, but not ritually prohibited.
Nam medicine. Made by Harold and Rab of Tigul. Had previously made some medicine in the house. The two placed seats and four stones in from of seats. Harold carried a bunch of leaves with him. They broke off the awhile after fixing seat and rocks as food had just been brought from Rodney 's compound. Another stone added after food eaten. Grass taken from roof and small fire lit between the stones. Rab and Harold sit on chair. Fire lit from hot coals of fire in dead woman's house. About ten minutes passes while women for whom medicine being made are relieved of children. People chat and joke freely during this period. Daughter of deceased the one living in the compound, brings a small chicken. She shows it to Harold . Other daughter brings water, leaf given to her by Harold . Harold talks to audience and smiles. He takes burning stick and circles fire three times. Other daughter gets small knife. Rab cuts leaves an puts them in daughters palms also puts some in soup. Rab puts pot with water on fire. The two sons in law are nearby. Then Gregory says that if anyone comes to witch either of the two his medicine will catch them. Harold and Frederick repeat this. While this was being said women covered their eyes. You then takes chicken from resident daughter. Harold again circles fire three times, the daughters and sons in law hold out their hands. Rab circles chicken around the daughters and sons in law on the head with chicken then on the palms. Slits chickens beak. A feather of chicken put in its blood and rubbed on stomach and shoulder of the four. Only the tongue of the chicken is cut it is not killed. Feathers taken off while alive. Rab does this, holds it over fire to help in plucking. Finally it is killed by having stick put through its throat. Then roasted on fire. People are now merry. Brett plays no part in this, he is sitting in the corner of the compound fixing medicine house. Rab and Buchanan cooking chicken Harold tends the fire. Native salt brought by resident daughter, given to Harold . Puts some in his mouth theninto mouth of resident daughter, then to Rab then to Buchanan , then to other daughter and finally sons in law, each time he does this he says Kissum. Chicken is now partly cooked, they take out the intestine. Harold breaks off a wing, gives to resident daughter. Then all five cup their hands and he cuts grass into them. Grass put in broken pot over the fire, then he touches the four with bit of chicken on forehead. Legs of chicken cut off and put in pot with grass over fire. Rab puts the rest of the chicken in pot, all but intestines. Intestines cleaned by resident daughter. Rab feeds the two women soup throwing a bit away. A bit of soup tied up in grass and given to women. The daughters braid this into a cord. Rab makes resident daughter smoke his pipe. Braided string given to Rab . Cleaned intestines put into pot. Daughters are laughing and joking. Pot with soup taken off fire and touched to two women breasts by Rab . The two sons in laws are fed a bit of chicken by Harold , while he says something. Rab does the same. The two braided strings with soup inside tied around necks of women. Given Fufu by Rab . Native salt put in chicken pot then European salt. Harold takes a small bit and puts it on his tongue. Gives three tiny bits to Rab , then to sons in laws then to daughters and finally to Brett 's wife. A grass called Son squeezed into the mouth of in laws, daughters and Brett s wife. Fufu given to Brett s wife by Rab . Chicken taken out of pot and put on banana leaf by Harold . Harold takes tiny bit of chicken gives to Rab , then the in laws and daughters. Brett given a bit by Rab . The rest eaten by medicine men and daughters in law. Some given to Kitty and Brett s wife. Rab then puts pipe in mouth of the four ritually. Harold pours water over the participants hands quenching the fire.
All baskets with family chickens brought out. Banana leaves rubbed on participants by Harold . Now all kin join to get blessing including children. Kitty , Brett and Rab kneel around the chickens. Harold hits each on the head with leaves. Each person takes bit of grass an throws it over his left shoulder, this done with left hand. Harold gives a blessing, then breaks off bits of grass and throws them on the chickens and are blessed. Harold then holds bunch of leaves on hoe. Daughters and Rab tie it in knots. Resident son in law makes hole and plants leaves near house. Some leaves given to the two daughter. "Forget" grass doused in water and shaken over chickens and four main participants and all inhabitants of compound.


Anyone can wail, man or woman even if not of family. However family members cry the more as a rule and women usually more than men. Wailers get no gifts. Women as a rule don't go into compound to wail. Women remove strings that they wear round their waists. After medicine made, if the deceased is your father, mother, wife, husband brother, sister both men and women wear white strings around their waist. More remote relatives may or may not as they wish. These worn for six or seven days. One can wear a cloth as well as strings.

Nam and Kum Medicine.

Harold and Rab (Tigul) made this medicine. The stones placed on the ground were put there only to cook food. Harold used Njur Nami, Wulnami, Gulli, Lebir and other grasses. Both Nam and Kum medicines joined as both medicine men had them. They did at same time to save time. Chicken cooked for Kum medicine not Nam. The medicine men went into house alone with all of the grasses to chase dead out. They said "All the dead, All the Dead, all the dead, go to bush. Today I drive them, you will go out, children will not get sick, I make nam medicine. The dead will not come and sit in the house again.
Harold later took burning grass and circled fire with it three times saying Dead people go to bush. Rab cut some grass and put it in palms of the two daughters saying, "Today I cut you grass of Nam medicine, the dead will not make you sick, they will not follow you gain, you will look to the East, sickness will not trouble you. (The dead are driven to the West, the living go and stay to the East). The above was done to sons in law also. Olive gave Rab chicken. Harold circled fire three times again saying to the dead. All dead all dead go to bush, then repeated three times living people will look to the East. Rab took the fowl circled fire three times hitting sons in law and daughters on the head and under arms drawing across the body saying three times you will not have head ache, you will not have stomach ache. Blood from chickens mouth put on participants as this done for all medicines using chickens. When Harold gave each of four participants native salt, he said three times, "I give you salt, the voice will not be tired (in reference to wailing of previous day). I give you this salt, salt for Nam, the dead will not trouble you again. The Harold cuts leaves and gives to outstretched palms of 4 saying, I cut grass for Kum, Kum will not make you ill, your body will not be sick, your body will not tire. If this medicine not made the children of those who have cared for woman and pallbearers will get ill. The grass was cut into the hands of one of the sisters, who dropped it into the hand of her sister, who dropped it into the hand of her husband who dropped it into Buchanan 's hand who dropped it into the pot.
Harold put the pot to each of the four forehead not quite touching, saying their head will not be black (the pot was very black from cooking). When Harold put legs of chicken into pot, he said "your body will be light after sleeping". The participants could not eat or smoke until Rab or Harold fed them. When Harold poured water on the hands of the four, he said "your body will be cook like water". The throwing of leaves over left shoulder is to make them forget dead. Then grass thrown on chickens to stop dead from making chickens ill to make chickens forget the dead, and to allow children to grow.
Nyenin is forget grass. It makes you forget things. Grass not rubbed in palms but with the back of the hands, as if one rubbed it with ones palms one would forget everything. When people had this grass rubbed on forehead he said they will forget the dead person, and the dead person will forget them. The leaves put in water on ground so that dead will forget chickens and chickens forget the dead.


In past in case of exchange marriage seducer had to pay five goats, unless husband was of the family. Now when exchange no longer possible, fine is no longer five goats, unless the husband lives far away and is heartless. In the same hamlet or village the fine is ususally a fowl. Big people would not agree to claim of five goats when someone slept with his wife. When wife ill she confesses. Culprit then sends fowl for medicine, later sends five goats.
Rape does not exist as a crime in case of unmarried girls, though songs may be sung about man who raped girl. Bride is asked night of first sleeping with her what men she has slept with.
Frederick says that if you sleep with wife of family member you may have to pay five goats, someone not in family may have to pay seven goats. Family of criminal helps him to pay. When asked what sanctions could be exercised to enforce payment, he said that it could not be refused. He says that family always helps, one man did it eight times, and his family helped him each time. Goats payed only for exchange marriage, for not exchange, pay only one fowl.
Aylmer says if Mbon slept with his wife would make him pay five goats to teach him a lesson. He would help Garth and Ian to pay fine. Both ma' {mo} and Pa's {fa} family help.


Tiket and Ndiel never had war. All Warwar fought together against Vokude. If Ndiel got into war other hamlets would help. They fought with Vokude, Mbamga, Mang etc. Never fought Kabri. Wars usually fought over stolen women.
Johnson says
Man Max Man Clint and Man Getchang cannot intermarry but they can marry into Man Neil . He says all three of the same family. He doesn't know who Man founder. Tscharl and Tiket act as a unit against Ndiel in dances. When things are divided such as corn beer Tigul gives more to Ndiel than to others the same applies to Tscharl and Tiket. Tscharl will support Tiket against Ndiel or Tigul and vice versa. Johnson does not know reason for this.

Johnson on Seduction

With with wife of a man not in your family, woman will get ill. Big ant will say who seduce was. Seducer first gives one chicken then five goats. In family just give one chicken. Family will help seducer raise goats, if family does not have goats, will give money. Family will warn seducer that second time won't help. If seduced again then will be given as slave. If not exchange marriage still pay five goats. The resulting child belongs to husband.


Women and men can become friends (Bill). One begins about 15 or 16. One can leave him. The first thing that you do is to buy him beer and ask him to become your friend. If you refuse such an offer people will laugh at you saying that you have not much cargo. This according to John has happened. John 's Bill was a boy that he grew up with and played with. MINIMA was the Boy's sister. John first gave him one jug of corn beer, he gave in return two, John gave 3 and soon it was up to 17, John gave it to him last. Competitive element in this, usually done about twice a year, if you have not much food can wait up to three years or more. You must wait until your partner gives you feast before you give him one. Big men don't let juniors get too grandiose, in their feast giving. Every jug counted, a stick given for every pot. All beer counts. In case of Dembe man, all of beer given by all Warwar people counts. When you become big man your feasts get bigger. At death of one partner it finishes, but if the brother of the dead man wishes to continue he may. You can marry your friend's sister if you want to. You can have a friend from same town if you wish but not in same hamlet as if you did who would help you. In one famous case a friend approaching his friends town, Mang, was greeted by having ten jugs of beer poured on the ground. If you cannot give as much as your friend did last time it would be shameful thing. Your friend would then ask whether you did not want to keep his friendship and wanted to leave him.
When you marry your friend may give you some money, though this not competitive, you may also give him presents, but again not competitive. Your friend will come at your marriage and play with your wife, but not sleep with her. Also he may help on your farms, but not essential. Can call him by name or billama. Friend does not have sexual access to wife. He may go and ask big ant for you if you are ill. If someone dies in your family he will come and buy palm wine to give to you.


If twin dies all farming must stop irregardless of age. It is only people with big medicine or twins who stop farming next day. People of family cannot go farming if male dies irrespective of age, this only applies to family members living in hamlet, if family members live in other part of town they can work their farms if they wish. When man dies no one can cut sticks, or resort to big ant on following day. For women with big medicine farming stops next day.
Simon has Bill in Tigul a man named Randolph . Has given two jugs. Chose him so that when he went to Tigul someone would give him corn beer.
Frederick . Man from Dembe asked him to be his friend. This before they were married. He is not sure that when he is invited he will be given more, but if he is not, then he will laugh at his friend.
Ian has no friend.


Father ideally gives most for first marriage, but does not help much for succeeding ones.
Frederick says that cowrie shells were used many years ago for money, they were introduced by Fulani.


Frederick and Gerard say that it is a good thing. Frederick says that he wishes it would be allowed again. When you exchange and have children all of your property goes to them. When marry with bridewealth the family of the mother can take children back, and then they won't have your property.
According to Frederick if you marry with bridewealth, if you don't have children, then you get your bridewealth back. If children remain with you you don't claim it. If child is very small it returns with mother but when it gets bigger it comes back. In this case money not returned. He says too, and Gerard agrees with him, that nowadays young men spend too much time looking for wives and don't have enough time to work farms. According to them both, the sisters had to exchange.
Ian on Exchange Marriage.
Exchange marriage is bad as women forced to go to husbands whether they liked it or not. If woman died having no children the paired couple would have to give some of her children to the other husband. Ian says it is better now. He claims if all bridewealth paid then child belongs to father. In olden days with bridewealth children belong to mother's family. He does say where exchange arranged many years ago it should not be broken as is the case in court at Mbamga, causes undue hardship to husband.


Doesn't know where are came from. He learned from Gordon a relative who learned it from Adrian . Need not be relative to learn from a person. Makes small money from 1d to 2d a job. Does not know how to make a spear. Must learn small medicine before doing any blacksmithing. He does only small jobs such as making hoes from flat pieces of iron bought from mission. Cuts iron by hammering with chisel. A bellows composed of two wooden tubes attached to two goatskins lead to fire. A funnel of clay holds two wooden pipes in place. He got his bellows from Gordon . Hot metal held by pincers of wood.


Grass cutting for clearing field for guinea-corn. First person to appear was Irving 's wife. The first person to start work apart from the owner or his wife or immediate family gets a pot of corn beer. This applies to all communal farming, but no member of owners compound can claim it.
There was a big discussion before leaving Clifford 's compound as Clifford had locked up all of the corn beer. The custon is that the owner tells the people when work is over, some men race to compound. The first one to get there gets first pot of beer on his own. Clifford eventually put a pot of beer in Andrei 's house which was unlocked for this contingency. It is only when cutting grass for guinea-corn that this is done. Order of appearance. 9:30 Clifford , Knox , Rehfisch. 9:35 Irving 's wife, 9:40 Sybil , Clifford 's wife, 9:55 Andrei , 10:10 Ian , 10:12 Eddie with corn beer, 10:18 Langley , 10:20 Clint s wife, 10:30 Ron and Charles 's wives. 10:40 Norma , Ezra 's daughter. 11. Caspar , 11:30 Howie .
After about twenty minutes of work all adjourned for beer. 40 minutes of beer drinking. Caspar and Dyson s wife start work. Andrei followed after two minutes. Charles 's wife 5 minutes later. Clifford 2 minutes later, then Ian . Then all followed. None drank beer and then left. 3 pots of beer brought down. One by Clifford , one by his wife and one by Eddie . Worked for about 1 hour. Finished one side, then another pot of beer. Then started again. People work for about five minutes, hard then let up, talk for a minute or two then start again. That is for men only. Women work less rapidly but more steadily. They work in a line which is not straight as some work faster than others. Children are stripping grass later to be used for making baskets. Native hoe in short strokes uprooting grass and cutting roots of longer rooted weeds. Grass allowed to lie on field to dry. Later to be burned. At 4:30 people left field as work finished. By 5:30 people assembled at Clifford s. Interim spent washing and chatting. About fifty people turned up at beer party. Clint was biggest man. A small pot about four calabashes poured for Frederick as he did not show up. He was tired and not feeling well. 4 jugs brought out at once. Andrei , Clint , Howie and Ed given jugs. Clint gave his to Ian . After these finished two more brought out. Clint given a large calabash full, he took sip, then held while Andrei drank holding his index finger towards the sky. Clint muttered something like a spell. It is done because Andrei worked the hardest. Broke up at 7:30. Much banter between Ian and Clifford on the subject that each was going to steal the others wife. Also Sybil and Ron joked, Ron 's wife going so far as to go into Sybil 's house and tossing out some of her baskets telling her to go. This all in fun. Much talk about Marcus and theft of a cow, Ron , Harold ,Clint , Martin , Keith , Kitty Mbon Aylmer , Zoe , Gerard , Graeme among those present.
When Clint muttered spell for Andrei , he said "Bless you, What you want you will get you will work harder than the others. Even if others work very hard you will pass them. Bless you. Andrei had told Clint that he worked the hardest. The person that thinks he has worked best walks up and takes cup after big people had had theirs. If there is a discussion about who deserves the honour than those present at working party decide. The owner of the farm can't claim it. This is done for all communal work parties. Clint chosen to recite blessing as when he was young he was well known for working hard. Even if Frederick had been there Clint might have been chosen to give beer. The person who wins the honour must be given beer by a member of his kin group, whether maternal or paternal.


1. Andrei 's compound. As he had had communal farming two days before.
2. Brett . He said his wife ill.
3. Herbert . Not enough food because of flood.
4. Irving . Same reason as for Herbert . People may sing satirical songs about these two as they don't have enough food, but they won't mind as they know it is not their fault.
5. Cadogan . His wife had made beer for when people brought firewood and she says she too tired to make more.
6. Ian . Only made one pot in case in laws come.
7. V. Zielinski . Graeme says he has fever.
8. Garth . Says he has to save money as Nicholas and Aidan want to marry, so he sells all of his surplus crop.
June 11, 1953.
Buchanan was taking his food inside his house with the women. While this is not forbidden it is rarely done. Brett was not waiting with him.

Guinea-corn TABOOS

It is not permitted to talk while removing guinea-corn from storehouse or it will run away fast. I learnt this by going to Rodney s compound greeting him and being ignored, that is he half-smiled but said nothing to my greeting. It was later explained that he did not answer because of taboo. When one descends from ladder then one can talk. Women can take guinea-corn out of store house, but can't talk while so doing. The same applies to children.
When you take corn from store you can talk. Later observation showed that some people do talk while removing guinea-corn. Some say that it doesn't matter, some say that one can only talk to persons living in compound and some say you can talk to any one. Some said that they could talk to me, but not to others as I was different.
June 11, 1953

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