March 4, 1953. Land Tenure by John .

Children of a man get his farms. Both sexes inherit land. If daughters young they share equally with brothers. If daughters married marries away, the sons get and keep all. If your sister marries in the town her husband may ask you for land and you must give it to him, but if you don't have enough then you may refuse.
If you need more land you ask first fathers family for some. All land belongs to someone. You can ask anyone for land though in preference you ask your own kin. One can go and live with mother's family if they have enough farms. Many people go to live with mother's family. If you leave Warwar you let others use your farms if they wish. If you return later you get them back. If person uses your farm they may give you a basket of guinea-corn or corn, but this is gift, not rent.
If a stranger comes and is your friend, you would give him a farm or two, if you don't have enough, then you ask others to supply your friend. You would ask Kassalas and other big men. If the people in your hamlet don't have enough to give one to friend you ask people from other hamlets. If stranger later leaves, farms go back to original owner. If a person has given stranger a farm, and later needs it back, he does not ask stranger, but asks sponsor of stranger for its return. According to John a stranger never really owns land, nor do his children. Stranger can lend his land, but only after consulting sponsor. Sufficient farm lands for everyone in Warwar, no land hunger. Strangers are not allowed to buy land. People used to sell land to Warwar inhabitants but no more.
Mountains that surround Warwar and used for hunting cannot be sold. Roland who owns a part would not be allowed by big men of Ndiel to sell it. If Roland says that they cannot burn grass to hunt on it, people wont. If father leaves me land I say Hi Burrama, the same term used if someone lends me farm.

March 5, 1953. Ian on Land Tenure.

The first people who came to Warwar divided up all of the land among themselves. They had meeting and set a certain day on which people would mark out their farms. If one or more of my brothers had not yet come to Warwar. I might go and cut farms for them.
If man had too many farms he might sell them, the seller might ask a goat for a big farm. Or might ask a slave for same sized farm. For small farms you would give a fowl. Sons can inherit farms from mother. Only sons inherit, though sons often lend farms to sisters. If you don't have enough you can ask anyone to give you farms. Person may sell you one, lend it for a specified number of years. Person who borrows farms gives lender a fowl called Tschor Hallemi. He gives fowl for 2 to four years use of farm. For loan of one year you give nothing.
Mela ma nea gulli = I'll sell you farm
(itschi bli = Work it for nothing (I won't sell))
If you want to sell you show buyer farm. Price decided. Goat or other thing given. Owner takes Guli grass, the buyer gives added chicken Tschor Gulli Owner spits on Gulli and blesses it, new owner takes the grass and plants it on his land.
If Ian needed goat or money he would first ask Frederick to help him. If Frederick would not he could then sell a farm, even if Frederick did not want him to. Sales nowadays are few. Ian bought one some time ago from Brooke , he gave two hoes and two shillings. 2 shillings was for Gulli grass as Ian had no fowls. Brooke cannot ask for it back. Sometimes farms lent for indefinite period. Women cannot own farms.
Ian says if stranger comes and his friend can only lend him small farm, the stranger can go directly to others to ask for loan, need not act through intermediary.
No one can take your farm away. If you leave the town you let your brothers work on your farms. Nowadays strangers have to ask Obidiah and Rathbone for permission to stay, this is done through Kassalas, but this is a new government regulation.
If stranger comes to settle in Ndiel he may ask people from other hamlets to lend him land. Some people have more farms than others, Frederick s family has the most in Ndiel. Frederick s family first in Ndiel
If my daughter has children and comes back with them to Warwar I should give them farms to work. When a man is about to die, he should say publicly what farms he owns so that his children will know.
When Ian bought his farm only he and seller were present, both participants then went to big people and told them about sale.
Any person can fish in the stream. Lakes belong to individuals. Pearson of Tiker owns a lake. Owner announces day that it will be fished and divided total catch. He gets a share as the owner.

Names of Areas of Ndiel.

Yetter Tebi = hill part of Ndiel
Yetter Tebi = hill part of Ndiel
Gila Lutaba = where Frederick lives
Kitter tab leba = where Adrian lives
Barki where Ian lives. This because site of ancient R.H.
Theo was the Kassala before Frederick . Theo was Adrian 's "brother" Doesn't know who preceeded him. Special meeting held to decide who is to be Kassala, women not asked their views.

The big men of Ndiel.

Frederick . Is big because is oldest and is Kassala.
Adrian . Has Tshuk and is old.
Archibald . Is big because has Bel medicine for repairing dance floor fence and is old.
Cadogan . Because is old.
Dyson because is old.
Gregory not because is old but because has Nya medicine. Got it from father Cosmo .
Roland is big man because has Felip medicine.
Adrian s Tschuk medicine is for hunting. Clifford s is for new born children sometimes called Tshuk Nga.
If I have medicine I would or might teach it to all of my sons but only one can practice it. Little horns around neck used for Tschuk and Tu.
The three stones are called Keltera (man stone), Kelme (woman stone) Kelbol (stone for corneX) {corner??}
Frederick s wife has Lobal medicine used Ngiri grass and this can be used to stop argument.
Rathbone has Ngua medicien.

March 6, John

Some women own farms. If father has no sons daughters can inherit. If girl marries away, she shows that farm to someone in the family and he works at it. If crop is a good one, he may send a basket or two to women. If girl returns she can reclaim farm. Woman leaves her farms to her sons.


Only women work round small yams.
If farm has not been worked for awhile, you must first cut the grass, native hoes used. Men and women both do this, children help. If you can make beer bring three or four jugs to farm and ask others for help. You go the previous evening and ask others to come and help. You can ask people from other towns and hamlets. If someone asks you and your don't want to help, you say "I shall see tomorrow." John says even lazy people come as they don't have to work hard and can drink beer. Some come about 9:00, others 9:30 and lazy ones about 10:00. Those coming at noon are said to be slouchers. Work until sun goes down or work finished. Usually for one day only. Unless you are very good friend you don't go unless asked. After work owner of farm gives beer and sometimes dancing. If you see people working and drinking beer you can join them in drinking beer without working. Old men may come to work, but the owner should not let them.
When grass is cut it is spread over the field and left to dry so that can be burned. When it looks as if rain is going to come, you burn your grass. You can burn your grass whenever you wish to, need consult no one. Man wife and children to burn grass. No medicine made. After this wait for rains. Rains come. Ridges are made when earth damp as easier. Often make corn beer so that people come to help you make ridges. Men women and children do this work. Women usually plant corn, but men may help. Usually only women and girls do planting. Meanwhile men making ridges on other farms. Women make little hole with their fingers, put five or six seeds in. Holes spaced about 2 feet. apart. Seeds planted on top of the ridges. In between corn they plant Argusi (a kind of pumpkin) Also plant okra usually all all on same day, but may do so other days. All planted on the ridge. You plant you yams the day of first weeding. About a month after planting you weed. Men women and children weed. It is done with hoe and hands. On ridges you use only your hands or corn shoots might be destroyed. Again you can make beer and have others come to help, but usually this done by owners family.
After this ridges are broadened so that the guinea-corn soon to be planted will grow well. Men women and children do this. If not all of the field was planted in corn, the rest is now cleared of grass for planting guinea-corn.
When guinea-corn about to be planted medicine made. All make beer. On market day Jujus come out. They all go to Tiker to "gir" behind the fence. Some of the Jujus goto farms and steal corn and bring it to gir. This corn given to Johnson (Nor Giri) Archibald is the Ndiel for Giri. Corn is roasted on fire by Johnson . Johnson eats first ear and gives rest to whom he wishes. Then they talk about when guinea-corn should be planted. The big men discuss this in concert. They decide on a certain day. Bell (called Yung) is rung. Johnson hits Yung and says if witch comes to spoil guinea-corn Juju will kill them. Jujus given corn beer to drink. A man takes Gulli grass and gives a bit to all of the men. Each one takes his to safe place to keep until about to plant guinea-corn, when it is planted in the field to insure that crop will grow well. Jujus dance after distribution of Gulli grass. Johnson sings a song, some of the medicine men wrestle, then they come out from behind fence with Jujus. Women must stay inside their houses when Jujus about. Jujus goes to Foster s place. They dance there. Johnson comes and sings wrestling song and wrestles, medicine men alone wrestle with him. Afterwards mass wrestling. Foster provides beer. Then return to Johnson s compound. Sing and wrestle there, then go to dance field at Tiker. Jujus return to their hamlets. Young men wrestle. 2 days of wrestling. Jujus can come and play on these days, sometimes lasts 3 or 4 days. On the third day Jujus go to beg things from women. Next day they cook all that has been obtained. This is the sign the Jujus will no longer play. Complete rest enforced on the next day. After this they plant guinea-corn, Johnson has made the medicine for it. Corn can be brought home at any time as soon as is ripe. May make beer to get people to help. People who married your daughters and sisters come to help you if you ask them and make beer. >From the first basket of corn you take a few ears and give them to the big man of your family. He takes two and spits on them and hands them back saying "Kissum Wo kikom, woo woo, Wo ki Yalipachi boni momua." Which means "Blessings, You work corn to grow more and more, if you work your crops they will not spoil but grow better and better". He takes the rest of the small basket of corn. You take the two ears that he has blessed and hang them up in your house or granary. You will use them to plant next year. You give big man his due before you bring more than one basket to your house. The women may bring first basket in and give it to big man of family. In this case it must be wife. She goes alone. The rest of the crop is brought by men, women and children. Hang it up in store house or residence if not enough space in store house. Let it dry before storing permanently.

Distribution of Crops

Husband divides fields and gives some to wife and children. First the family works the wifes field, then husbands, then childrens. Crops kept separately. Man sell part of his crop to get tax money. Either he or his children take it to market. Wife has most. She can sell some to buy cloth, salt and oil. She also keeps some money to help sons and other male relatives with brideprice. Her stock supplies most of family's food. If her stock is finished she will ask husband for some and also from her children. If she sells too much and there is hungry period in the family John insists that husband will not be angry.
The sons and daughter keep some of their crop to give to mother to cook for family. Also may give some to fiancee. Fiancee will not give any to her future spouse. A son takes most of his to market to get money to buy gifts for fiancee and jewelry for himself. John says that usual amount obtained at market is about £3. Girls sell a part of their crop to buy necklaces and other jewelry. Girls never give their boyfriends money. Wife keeps most for seed, husband may also give some if asked.

Marital history.

Penny married to Henry . Not married before
Daisy left Henry to marry some one at Yambap.
Muriel , born Ndiel. Was married at Titon left her husband and came to marry Henry
Katherine -from Kara - She was married to Erskin 's younger brother. He died and she married Henry
Pat - from Ndarrup not married before.


When Jujus have gone, people with Tschuk are first to plant. Tschuk people join together at Tiker and decide day to plant. Anyone can come to meeting. Tschuk people plant very small plot. Adrian at Ndiel and Cecil in Tiker do this. No one can be with them or see them planting. Is done early in the morning. From the day the guinea-corn planted by Tschuk men to day leaves sprout, no one can sleep outside of the town. No one from outside can come and sleep here. Usually takes five of six days for leafs to sprout. No one can plant guinea-corn until leaves come, this includes Tschuk people. Tschuk man goes and looks every day, no one else can go. Small plot about 2 feet square. When he sees leaves he announces it to people. Now one can sleep anywhere and strangers may come. If during forbidden period you sleep outside or stranger comes he gives fowl or cash with the feathers of a fowl to Tshuk man. Theoretically cash should be enough to buy chicken. You can't sleep with a woman not your wife during this period. Unless you have slept with her before.
When leaves sprouted, Tschuk man plants his guinea-corn then others follow. If guinea-corn leaves appear in all but one hamlet they try to find out why it did not there. Tarrantulas are used for this, that is trying to find out who has sinned. Sinner must bring fowl to Tschuk man. Tschuk man makes another fine field and waits for leaves to come out. It is only after all of the fields have sprouted leaves that guinea-corn can be planted, Tschuk men from all hamlets come together and decide on date to plant. They plant their farms first. Anyone may help them. Next day others start to plant. Guinea-corn planted on ridges where corn grew. This is done after weeds turned over. Trees are planted on same day at same time. Guinea-corn seeds are sown by throwing, usually men do it, but women and girls can do it too. Women cover the seeds that man has thrown. Before planting your guinea-corn, you must confess if you are vexed with your mother, father, brothers, sisters, or children and anyone outside of your kin group. Then you must say that you are willing to forget your grievance. So saying you cut Yiu grass. People to whom one confesses are chosen by diviner. No payment made. Almost all people have medicine to act as father confessor, even John has it. Medicine made for sons, wife and daughters, and is made before planting.
Often farm is protected by slicing a gourd and planting Nzim grass and while so doing, saying if someone comes to spoil my farm may Jujus get him. With the Nzim grass grass is planted Guli, Pupo and Wulnami grasses. Only a man can do this. You do it the day you first plant guinea-corn, and only for first farm that you plant. Wife has to cook fufu for family that day or guinea-corn wont come out well.
First weeding when guinea-corn about one foot high. When guinea-corn begins to come out, Tschuk man is first person to clear space and sometimes build platform from which birds are frightened. Woman with Lobal medicine is first to light fire on cleared space. Then anyone can clear space and light fire.
Tschuk men first to cut guinea-corn. At first is left in the field then brought to flat place to dry out. Tarrantula (Ngam) is asked who must take guinea-corn to flat space. Sometimes it is the Tschuk man sometimes a boy or girl, but never wife. The day after Tschuk man has finished then others can start. Tschuk man is first to carry guinea-corn to his house. John says then anyone can do it, but many people do it in order of seniority within the kin group. Young men carrying hesitate before entering compound taking 3 steps forward and backward three times, then throw guinea-corn into store house. Before guinea-corn put in granary water spewed from mouth into it.
About at the age of twenty a boy gets own store house to get money and make Kurum. Wife gets more guinea-corn than husband, and have separate store houses. Husband and wife use part of their stock to eat and each has the right to sell his own and keep money. Son gives some for family food and part of money that he gets from selling he gives to father to help with tax.
Corn is eaten more than guinea-corn and is preferred as food.
Kurum is beer party given for farm work or other. Guinea-corn beer is better than corn beer. Guinea-corn is man, corn is woman because they make much medicine for guinea-corn and little for corn. Also corn grows quickly like women and guinea-corn softly softly like men. Corn stays inside leaf (house) while guinea-corn comes out and does not hide itself.


Its bad to work farm on market day. If corn is grown up and people worked on that day, wind would come and blow it all down. It is work with hoe that cant be done on market day. Cutlass can be used as long as it is not on farms. No work with hoe at any place on Market is old institution, it is on market day that Jujus come out and go behind fence
Anyone can go and sell in market, but more women do than men. Anything can be sold in Market. Palm oil, salt, meat are main foods women buy here. Buy both European and native salt.
March 13th,
Some women collecting coco yams and pods for seed on trees on farms. Men did no farm work today.
March 13th. Market day. Prices
Coco yams - (Koli) about 3/4 of a lb. 20 small ones 1/2d.
Coco Yams 1/2d for a big one about 3/4 of a lb.
Nuts (Ngui) 1d for a stick of about 15 nuts. Stick is 8 inches long.
Corn. 3 shillings for a heaped pan. This is corn off of the cob.
Plantains 1d for four to six large one.
Bananas 4 for 1/2d.
Yams 3 small one for 1/2d.
Cassava - KuKu) 1/2 for 3 medium sized ones.
Groundnuts (Sanghar) on pan full 4d.
Cornflour one small pan 5d heaped.
Salt 3d for 1/2 cigarette tin.
Palm oil 6d for 3/4 cigarette tin.

Corn Beer Case of Rolf s wife March 11, 1953.

Sarkim Barki's younger "brother" Howie saw Rolf 's wife grinding guinea-corn. He asked her whether it was to sell for beer and she said yes. (She was joking or so she says.) The boy immediately went to Adrian and told him. Adrian went to Rolf 's wife and told her that she shouldn't make guinea-corn beer to sell without medicines having been made. When woman learned that Adrian was angry, she called Howie and criticised him for telling Adrian . She said that he would have to drink water from Yung bell and if he didn't want to she would take him to Gembu court. The bell drinking was because Howie said that he had not told Adrian . She said that he was the only one to know. Rolf insisted that Howie drink the bell as he had "made lie to womans head". John told Rolf not to insist as Howie was small boy and didn't have sense. Rolf agreed and said that he would not insist but if Howie continued to lie, he would then insist on bell or Gembu. Argument stopped.
Argument was because Adrian has to make special medicine (Tschuk) before guinea-corn can be sold. Tschuk man's wife cooks guinea-corn into fufu day that it is cut and also makes small quantity into beer before anyone else can do this.
For corn there is no hamlet wide medicine, only the father of the family feeds it to his wife and children by hand the first day new crop eaten. First corn and guinea-corn cooked in a basket, not pan as the latter is European thing and if the pan were used corn or guinea-corn would run away. Also first of new crop of corn or guinea-corn made into beer must be drunk in calabash not European glasses or tins.


Johnson has it for Tiket, John does not know who has it in Ndiel, Tigul and Tscharl but he does know that at least one man in each hamlet has it. Some Yung bells are male and some female. The loud voiced ones are female and the small voiced ones are male. Man and women gongs tied together. If disease comes to another village or hamlet, the Yung man beats his bell and says that if any witch tries to bring sickness to his village or hamlet, the bell will kill him. If something stolen the Yung bell is hit and medicine man says if stolen thing not returned the Yung bell will catch thief and kill him. If bell rung and goods returned the culprit must give a fowl to medicine man and he rings bell so that it will not catch thief. The second ringing also protects culprits against witchcraft. Before bell rung people asked to return stolen article, and only if it is not returned will bell be rung. Men can watch bell being rung, but women cannot.
If you have told a lie and drink water from bell it will kill you in a short time. You will get bloated and then die. John has seen them ring bell many times, also seen lots of people drink water from bell, has also seen stolen good returned and bell rung a second time to protect thief. Also knows that people have died from lying to bell or not returning stolen goods.
Songs sung about thiefs who confess.
Witches die when bell is rung. They either get fat and die or the back of their necks and small of their backs hurt and they die. (Probably cerebro-spinal meningitis)
Bells come from French side and Titon.


A witch can always recognise other witches. They are made witches by drinking a special medicine. Both sexes may be witches, but women are worse than men, since they kill you at once. Men witches take longer about it and hence there is a chance to escape them. Witches use witchcraft to get meat. Usually bewitch at night but can also work in day time. Come in invisible form, you can bewitch anyone you like in your family. (There is some doubt as to whether one can bewitch non-relatives)
If I and John are both witches, I call him to help me bewitch a memberof his family, then later I have to help him with a member of mine.If someone accused of being witch he is made to drink Yung. Tarantula tells you who is witching you. Stick cutting sometimes used as a preliminary.


Men don't make them. Women do and give or sell to men. Men put on straps that is used to carry baskets on the shoulder. Sa=big basket used to carry corn. Mbol=little one used for corn flour. SaMal big basket carried on back. Kwala big basket used to cook corn beer. Same word used for small beer baskets in which beer served. Men make these baskets, that is both types.


Tung is the name of jug in which beer is served. Both men and women can make them. Clay is placed on rock, mixed with water and beaten with sticks. Both sexes may do this. Then rub between hands to make it into long strips. Make small hole in ground, bank it with leaves. Put strips of clay around the hole. Rub strips with broken calabash and bamboo too make look well. Make more strips. Bottom of pot not covered. Finish neck and lips while pot bottomless. Put in sun to dry. When dry put in bottom. Leave in sun long time to dry. When fully dried they tie to ceiling of house for further drying. Then much wood collected. Big hole dug. Pots put in hole, grass put on top of hole. Wood put on grass. Fire lighted and goes on all night. Pots removed from fire in morning. Only some people make own pots, others buy them. They make medicine while making pots, from camwood and Soa {sic} grass. They say of man spoils jugs may the Juju catch him. Only man can make this medicine. Jugs only made at dry season time. When they make pots don't touch eggs or dogs fecal matter. Small pots cost 1sh and 6d. big ones from 2 to 4sh.


Bel Yiri = mats to eat on. Women eat from bel yiri, while men eat from calabashes, bowls or baskets. Men and boys only make bel yiri. Only men make mats of all sorts. Pam = sleeping mat.


Loin cloth = Tchek
Buy cotton from French side or plant it oneself. Cotton = Mvele 1/2
Cotton removed from plant, seeds removed from pods. Clean cotton. Pulled into long strips. Strips wound around stick about six inches long. A round fruit = Ferr put on the stick then a strip spun on the small stick, made into thread.
For loom. 4 sticks cut, 2 sticks at one end and 2 at other. Length between sticks, determined by length of cloth wanted.
Two small sticks are tied across stick tied at each end. Then thread tied from end to other, then tie sticks across narrow way. Shuttle of bamboo used. Man alone weave Cloth died by red ochre and oil (palm or castor). Oil first rubbed in cloth then camwood. Dyeing usually done by women but may be done men. Rubbing of oils and camwood done by hand. Camwood also used on women at time of marriage, and on corpses. Bir = camwood. Loin cloth costs about one shilling a strip and about for strips are required. Bought undyed. Purchaser dyes himself. Camwood to dye costs about one shilling and palm oil 9d.


Jed he sleeps with Archibald , who is the father of his mother. His mother married at Mverrup. His father is Mallam Taffi. His mother left Mallam Taffi, her name is Vanessa .
Clarence . Sleeps with Archibald . His mother at Tiker, she is married to Neil . His father sleeps at Clay 's compound, his name is Thor . Thor is Archibald s son.
Roy . 3 years old. His mother sleeps here. Her name is Valerie , Thor is his father.
Myrtle . She sleeps at Archibald s compound. She is Archibald s daughter, that is Thor s daughter.
Valerie is her mother. 1/2 years old. Valerie sleeps in Archibald s compound.
If your brother has no children you may give him child to help on farm, in which case brother would help with bridewealth.
Elias . Suzette is mother - She sleeps at Kabri. Terence is father he is from Kabri. Terence and Suzette no longer married. He lives with Frederick . Suzette is Frederick s's sister but Elias does not know whether real sister or not.
Rolf - Tina his mother (Kutin) Ted is his father, born Ndiel. Conal Rolf 's real brother died and buried in Ndiel.
Roland full sibling of Rolf . Carmel his fill sibling sister lives in Mverrup.
Robbins full sibling lives Ndiel. Vincent his full sibling died Ndiel nine years ago
Toni full sibling died in Tigul.
Rolf s wife is Emma . She is Bute. Her father's name was Garfield and her mother Zoe . Both dead. He gave £2.
Nyap is brother as Rolf 's father married Nyap's mother when he was pikin in arms.
Cynthia was Rolf 's previous wife. She born in Warwar, but now lives Dorofe, this was his only Mambila wife, she left him 4 years ago. When she conceived she drank hot water and so lost child and Rolf sent her away. Had paid £2 bridewealth.
Archibald s father and Rolf s father fathers born by same person. Archibald s father was called Thor . Rolf 's father called Tony . Thor in Archie 's compound is Rolf 's brother.
Father of Adrian and father of Rolf born by same man. Adrian s father was Jimmie .
Rolf s family can marry Frederick s family.
Stephen and Rolf s father had one father and mother, he was older brother of Rolf 's pa.
Troy from Ndiel he and Rolf s father have one father and mother.
Franklin had same father and mother as Rolf 's father. He is in Yola. I big man in office at Yola. Will come shortly.
Colin . Rolf 's fathers mother came from Colin 's family. Hend Audu is brother.
When Rolf 's father died he left him lots of farms. Rolf gave them to his brothers to work for him, he gets some of proceeds. He can take them back any time that he wishes. At one time he had 4 wives. He had Zsuzsanna a Kaka woman he married her in Mayo Daga for £4. Virginia from Kabri she was Mambila. She talked too much so he drove her away, She is now in Dorofe.Gave £2 never got any back.
Virginia another woman came from Tibati near Banyo. She talked too much and wouldnt feed his brothers. Paid £1.10sh never got any back.
Miriam from Banyo. She would not work and wouldn't cook so he sent her away. She lives in Gembu married to Hausa man. Paid £2.10sh got some back
Sylvia . Banyo (Tikari woman) She is prisoner at Bamenda. Some man drank something at her house and died so they arrested her. She wanted to go to Banyo and Rolf said no so she left . Gave £1. 5 sh and got nothing back.

Jake s compound.

Sebastian 4 years old male. Jake s compound.
Father Jake Ndiel. Mother Gail left Jake and now lives Gembu Petil.
Steve boy 4. Lives Harold s compound.
Father Harold Ndiel
Mother Thelma now lives Tscharl left Harold .
Ronnie Male 4 years girlas compound. {sic}
Father Ronnie dead lived in Tigul. <br> Mother Jacqueline married her and child followed her.Vivienne 6. Harold s compound.
Father Harold -Ndiel; Mother Geraldine lives Harold s compound. Is Johnson s daughter.
Abe 5 years old boy. Lives Finlay s compound.
Father Finbarr from Vokude. Mother Eve lives in Dorfe. Abe and Finlay have one mother Naomi 40 Tigul woman. Rob her father dead, live her mother. She is not married All her children died.
Thompson 50 Caspar s compound. Father Rob dead, Chloe mother dead. Her husband is dead. Caspar her child.
Audrey 55. She sleeps in Scott 's compound. Father Goddard dead. Mother Jennifer dead. No child Alexandra 25 Ndarrup. Gregory her father. Rosalind mother. Timothy husband lives Ndarup. One child.


Obidiah died. Rathbone son of Obidiah . Denis had same father as Obidiah diff.mother. After Denis died not Ngwa as Rathbone and Obidiah too young. When he became old enough, they made Rathbone chief. When Denis died and no Ngwa left, water, river, spoiled farms. Since he became Ngwa river no longer spoils farms. Mr. Schneider, about four years ago, was here when he made Ngwa. No mission here when Denis died. Rathbone seven when Denis die. He is now about 35.
March 19th. Beer party for those who helped Herbert .
Many people other than those who helped on farm came. Adrian made speech saying that people must be nice to me. Brought first jug from Frederick-- Person#1953-->. Gregory had not yet appeared, when he came he sat next to me and was friendly. When stick to put in corn beer jug to stir it given to Frederick he gave it to Gregory to touch and give permission to put it in. The stirrer called (Tummba). Adrian got first cup as Tschuk medicine had not yet been made for that compound and in every compound Tschuk medicine must be made before guinea-corn bear is drunk. Adrian said "You spit beer" all said
Kissum Fi Bvani Kla Gia, {fií v\ni kela gia}.
Bad winds will not come here, all echoed eee, meaning yes.
Mbvu bvani kla kiawa, meaning bad sickness will pass on up side, people echoed Eee.> Nji bvani kali ndali samwa, bad things will not come to town, EEE.
Baturum bo Ndal Kali bila, bocki, njevani tual, If white man comes he will not say bad things. EEE.
Nyena Abili bo hi boke jum mi jange do botua ngil noma. Their boys which are at school will only say good things. EEE.
Then said that Mallam Taffi and John will only say good things, EEE.
These statements all repeated three times. He then drank corn beer and spat it out. Drank and spat three times, then repeated all of above, then drank and spat again, repeated all again, drank and spat, then he finally really drank cup of beer.
From first cup a bit thrown on the ground. The man who did this was Frederick . He then put finger on drop on ground and put it on his right toe. There was no talking while this done. Then drank rest of cup. Anyone can do this but must be fairly big man. If Gregory n there this would not have been done. Adrian had also said in his speech that girl should come into town = Bvul ki hol kali. When he said this young boys put up index finger so that they would marry quickly. Continued with good animals will come to town = Nyan ki hol kali. Also blessed crops saying that they will grow well, and that peace will reign in the town.
Adrian had been given mouse before he made his talk.

Hanley boy 3 1/2 years old. Margot is mother lives Ndarrup. Davis father-Ndurrp parent still married. Hanley is Frederick s brother since Margot is Frederick s sister.
Terry 4 years He sleeps in Bartlett s compound Tiker.
Sophie his mother married at French side. Bartlett his father in Tiker. Sometimes he sleeps at Frederick s compound as his father has no wife at present. His mother is Lance s sister.

Working on Frederick 's farm.

Mbon, Clifford 's wife, Warren , Simon or Sarkin Fater, Langley , Aneurin , Tomas , Rod , Daryl , Not all of these his, Frederick 's relatives, some just came to help.
They all seem to rush about madly without any organization. They work steadily, with some spurts. Seemingly no competition. They are building mounds.

How Mambila Flog their women.

If woman does something that angers you, if she argues with you, then you can slap her or beat her with stick, she may try and hit you back. If she is vexed then she may go to her place and cry. She stays there until you go and talk to her kin. Usually she goes to her mother. Her kin judge case. If she has been wrong mother will tell her not to do it again. If man is judged to be in wrong then he pays 5 to 10 sh. or cock. Mother gets the money. On first occasion of dispute mother alone decides. If more disputes then father may decide. If mother takes your money then girl returns, but does not come back with you. Your father, mother, or important kinsman must go fetch her. She is brought by them to your house. Even if girl at fault you must pay something but small amount maybe two or three shillings.
Your older brother will try and stop her going to her family, he may use force. Often she is stopped. John once flogged Theresa , she went to her mother. This was because Theresa had not cooked food when John came. Her mother adjudged Theresa<!-- Person#1672--> wrong, John paid 3 sh Theresa 's brothers and mother were there when case heard. If disagreement about evidence between wife and husband, medicine is brought and they made to swear. The brides kin can take wife away if they wish. If wife leaves husband man gets children, unless they very young, in which case they go to mother and return to father when they grow a bit. If husband is wronged party he can claim bridewealth and children, if he is wrong then only gets children, but not bridewealth.

MANG POLITICAL SITUATION.> They gave Don Lawan money to grant them chieftainship. He took money but did not give them independence. They now want chieftainship of their own and not be under Kabri as they are at present.

Mambila God.

When people die God comes for them. People dont really die, but they get new bodies (as do snakes) New body is white. Chickens of dead are also white. Dead live on the Earth, but not many people have seen them. Your brothers who have died will come to get you when it is your turn, that is they will come to decide whether to take you. Often they decide not to as you have other people to take care of, especially children. If they decide to take you, according to John brothers must be unanimous on this point, they bring you cooked chicken in palm oil, if you eat if then you will die. If some don't want you to die they will stop you from eating it. If they refuse you the portion then you must not turn around to watch them go, if you can stop from doing this then sickness will finish. All dead people called Tschang. There is no one Tschang.
A little corn beer is poured on the ground for them. Every time you eat or drink beer a little should be thrown on the ground. Dogs and fowls eat this but they only eat bad parts as good eaten by Tschang. Your sacrifice is eaten by your dead relatives only. If you don't throw it voluntarily some will fall from your hands, this is bit taken by Tschang. Some dead are good living other are bad. If person dies on a very rainy day he will be bad for the living. If you see dead in dream this is bad and they should not come back. They can make you sick. If you don't like small children you are bad and dead will punish you. Food given to both ancestors of mother and father. Some throw food on their right side for father's kin and left side for mother's. If you get ill there is medicine man who can chase dead away, this is medicine called Njur Nami. Works for all dead, not only for family dead. Spirits cannot hurt you if you have not done bad thing, or are not vexed with other people


No European chief at time of Obidiah . Fulani came to him. Rathbone second Ngwa not Mbon. When Rathbone died his brother was small. Fulani told people to bring all of Yuyus sons and brothers to Banyo. Thomas was big man and told Rudolf to go to Banyo. Chief of Banyo asked Rudolf whether he was of Yuyus family or Yuyus son, and he said no was not related. Chief of Banyo sent him back telling him to bring Yuyus son. When Rudolf returned he told people what had happened and they took Yuyus son, Denis and went with him. Denis given big gown, by Banyo chief. When they gave Denis gown, Banyo chief gave him matches. He told Denis to take out one match daily. After ten matches were out he was to expect Banyo chief who was coming to Warwar and was to be given help in war against some other people. No Europeans in Banyo at that time. After five sticks had been put out Germans reached Banyo. Chief of Banyo did not come. Germans passed through valley later, first sleeping at Gembu then Tiker. Germans made Rudolf chief because he could speak Fulani, and was about the only one who could in the village. Rudolf told Tom , his brother and Johnson his son, that when he died he was to give back his chiefs gowns to Tscharl people as he had no right to them. When Rudolf took his gowns to Denis . Denis said, no he was too young and that Tom should keep them until Denis asked for them. Tom became ill and consulted NGAM oracle. The oracle said to give clothes, that is chieftainship back to Denis as he had no right to it. So Denis got clothes back and became both Mbon and Ngwa. He went to Maya Daga and given more gowns. When Denis died they gave clothes back to Tom . Kassala Phillip , the man who is alive today told them to do this. Tom refused. Phillip finally persuaded him to take him to take them. Fulani wanted Obidiah (present chief) to come to Maya Daga to be given office, but he was very small. Tom agreed take clothes until someone of Obidiah 's family grew up. Tom became sick. He called Kassala Phillip , Tristan (a big man) and Rathbone (present native chief). Tom told them that clothes were killing him so that when he died Tscharl should take them back. Tom died. Conlan got Fulani to give him clothes though people did not want him as chief. He was not related to Denis or Tom . Mindels mother came from Conlan s family. Conlan died shortly thereafter. Conlan died. Theobald wanted to become chief. Neither people not Fulani agreed. Obidiah and Rathbone- Person#355--> still small. Fulani told Theobald that he could be chief if he taught Rathbone how to be chief. Theobald did not help Rathbone . Theobald died. Some wanted Rathbone to become chief. D.O. agreed. Rathbone was European and Native chief until he got leprosy. Johnson-- Person#827--> offered to make Obidiah chief. Rathbone said wait and see, how sickness went. Johnson did not wait and showed S. Zielinski to D.O. Zielinski was made chief. Zielinski caught and put in prison. Johnson- Person#827--> told Tscharl people to take back chieftancy.
Obidiah the first was a great fighter so they decided to make him chief. All agreed that he was a great man. He spoke nice things and didn't hurt others. Always spoke the truth. Rathbone says that Fulani did not make Obidiah chief but the he got it from people of Geshemi, near Dorofe. When he was made chief he killed a large goat and gave feast to the big people. Big people agreed to make him chief. When Fulani asked who was chief Obidiah came forward and was given gowns. The chief's chair and bush cow tail come from Geshemi.
Karel and present wife Yalipki have had three children, one died. He had a daughter by previous marriage who lives in Tigul. The wife died so she went to live with mother's father.
Aldous boy about 8. His father from Tiker is dead. He lives with his mother's brothers son. Cedric .

March 26. John on Johnson .

Johnson left Tiker because when Samuel Zielinski was working for mission he went to preach at Ndarrup and he lived there. When D.O. asked who was to be chief he asked big people. Johnson asked Schneider for John to be made chief. Schneider agreed and they took Samuel . Samuel had two children while at mission when they came to Tiker the two died. John says that he bore more, 4, but all died, only four remain. Samuel said to Johnson , how when he was at mission children lived and when came to Tiker they died. Samuel 's penis became weak. He went to consult tarantula. It said Johnson s wife bewitched his children. Samuel told Johnson it was his wife who was causing trouble. Johnson said no. Samuel spoke to big people and both Johnson was vexed and went to Tscharl. He went while Samuel was chief, but after Schneider had gone. The conversation in Tscharl yesterday was to get Johnson to come back, Samuel says that he wants him back though according to John it is not finished in his heart. Samuel wants him to remove Samuel 's medicine. Johnson talked with Gregory who agrees only if all big people agree. Johnson told Samuel and Samuel said to call all Kasalas. Samuel said Johnson must come back as it is bad for father and son to be angry at each other. Samuel speaks of Johnson as his father. Johnson agreed to come back.

Medicine made for Johnson March 25.

Cecil made medicine. Johnson said that he was vexed at Samuel who is small boy and drove him away. But now Samuel begs him to come back, so he must agree. If Samuel vexes him again he will leave Samuel no property and leave for good. Johnson also vexed because no one helped him on farm. Cecil called to make medicine as is big Tschuk man at Tiker. He says: You are vexed with your small brother, we the people with Juju medicine are here. The Juju shall not hurt you again, before saying this he spits on Johnson . Spits again and says, the Jujus catch the earth, spits, the Jujus will not catch you. He takes Johnson s hand and makes it touch the ground three times saying each time, the Jujus catch the earth, then touches Johnson s right and left side of chest saying the Jujus will not hurt your ribs. Touches throat, saying Jujus will not hurt your throat, Cecil then clears his throat. Touches both right and left side of temples, saying Jujus will not hurt your head. Then snaps fingers over Johnson s head. Medicine called Shoa medicine as is all medicine involving Jujus. Johnson , Nyap (T) all have it and they taught it to John 's family. This is made all over Warwar when a person is vexed at someone in his family. John s wife could witch Samuel as he is of Johnson<!-- Person#827-->s family. You can only bewitch people living near you.
Shoas. = Jujus.
Made by man, but Shoa not only man made things but also other things. If I make Juju some one not of my family can wear it. Only members of family can look in medicine house. If one touches a black fish or eggs can't go near medicine house for one day. It spoils medicines if you do. The day that they make big medicines they don't eat or drink from utensils used by women for eating or drinking. Women however prepare food.
Graeme s first three children died

Rolf 's Shoa.

Called Bagalmi. Rolf 's father bought it from Mr. Schneiders carpenter who is Mambila and who made plenty of them. This Juju flogs people, it flogs people O.K., but you can't hit it back or you must give a goat. The man who is inside of the Juju gets the goat. If a big Juju flogs someone he will surely die. Juju flogs man with Lebur grass.


Father Theobald dead, mother Veronica dead. Neal (m) and Beryl (F) are his only full siblings. Felip medicine given by his father's full brother. He learned it as small boy. Cadogan has same father and mother as Theobald . Beryl Roland 's sister also has it. She married and living at Mang. Only he and his brother have it in Ndiel but in Tiker Tommy (a small boys name) and Rodney have it. At Tscharl Noah has it. Theobald paid his brother to teach it to Roland , he had learned it in Kabri. Roland has made the medicine and been paid 3 shovels and ten shillings. He can sell medicine and has done it to his brothers and sisters. Cannot sell it to person outside of family. The gifts given to medicine man are given by parents of twins. He returns them to the parents and claims them when twins about 8. If he took it earlier and twins died, the parents might think that he had done bad medicine. If one dies of the twins you get whole fee, if both die then you only get a little. If one of twins is girl he must make medicine when she is about to marry. When asked what would happen if he were not called when twins born, he said that no one having twins would dare not having Felip medicine made. Big ant decides which medicine man to call.

Ian 's Communal Farming.

Ian passed my house at 6:45 A.M. with a pot of beer on his head. I went to his farm at 7:30. Five men there and Ian 's wife, his mother and another girl. His wife mother were planting. At 8:30 sat and drank some beer. Present were Mbon, Martin , Aidan , Vivian Zielinski , Roland , Ian . 2 jugs drunk at 8:30. Clare a small girl living near Ian s compound, his wife and mother there. They first made ridges on already cleared land. Then later made small hills under which they had buried elephant grass. Plant corn in the hills. Pride is taken in the ridges. Sticks are stuck in the crests, so that when girls ask who made a certain pretty ridge, they can say I did and be proud.
Joachim full sibling Wakili of Mang
Jocelyn , same father with Wakili, but different mother.
1st chief of Mang was Francis was native chief; Kabri had their own native chief. When Francis chief, Tagnana, Man, Karake, Dembe, Ninge, Ngur, all were under Francis . He lived in Mang. When he died his real son Leigh became native chief, all towns stayed under him. Leigh died, Blake became chief; he was Leigh 's son. All towns stayed under him and he lived in Mang. Fulani came from Banyo. Bernard was chief, & Hudson 's son. Was 1st European as well as native chief. All towns under him. He lived in Mang. When Fulani came people said that they would pay them not to trouble the Mambila. Fulani agreed and so people paid. With cornflour, chickens, and one slave, among person. Chief gave them slaves. Bernard died. Alexander Lardner became chief. Was son of Bernard , lived in Mang. All towns under him. Alexander Lardner called the Kassalas from all the towns and told them to join him in going to salute chief of Banyo. Banyo chief gave him a gown. Bernard was 1st chief to get gown. Fulani chief kidnapped the Kassalas but let Alexander Lardner go back. Kept 5 Kassalas. These escaped except Alexander Lardner 's son. Alexander Lardner died. Van became chief both European and native. All towns followed him. Slept at Mang. Then Germans came. Van told 2 men from Mang to go and live at Banyo so that when people came they would have place to stay. 2 men went. Van died. War came to Banyo. English fighting Germans. Bert , one of the men sent to live in Banyo, came back to Mang. No chief as people were looking for a good one. Bert was Van 's son. Was not made chief as very old. Branigan was made chief of Kara by Fulani after Van died as Mang had no chief. Branigan asked Mang to follow him. but Mang people refused, saying he had stolen chief. MANG PEOPLE WENT UNDER Kabri as would not go under Kara. Bert said he would not be chief as too old but would wait until his children grew. Latimer was 1st chief of Kabri, Mang people under. Edmund was successor to Latimer. Edmund was brother to Latimer but of different father and mother...Edmund told Bert that when he died Mang should not follow Kabri anymore. Should have their own chieftainship; Edmund died. Dagmar became chief. Was Edmund brother, not same father or Dagmar 's fa. was Edmund 's father's brother. When Edmund died they did not follow Kabri again. Bert collected taxes and brought them himself, not paid under Edmund . When Bert died he made Godfrey Wakili. Godfrey 's fa. and Bert 's fa. were real brothers. Godfrey is now Wakili and has been for 8 years. They are not under Kabri. A D.O. Told them to fix resthouse but this not present D.O. Don Lawan was there. D.O. Told them to pay taxes themselves. They asked for their own chief. D.O told them to collect taxes, bring them to Don Lowan (Fulani) and he would give them gown. Many witnesses. When they brought tax Don Lowan said it was enough & he had written to Yola but had no answer. Said this on several occasions. Later they bribed him with £10, and lots of goats (they dont know number) Then Don Lowan moved and they neither got money nor chieftainship. They asked Darius . He asked them whether they would follow Kara and they said "No - How could they?" - When chieftainship their own?" Darius told them to come with big people to Gembu. D.O was there too. He said he would give them Chief. Wakili Shiajamo would be made chief. He is already native chief. They said they are not under Kara nor Kabri. Kara should follow them but would be free to decide for itself. Tagana follows Kara, has no native chief and does not want to follow Mang. Dembe following Ngumbin but they say if Mang has chief, they will follow him, as they are not happy with Ngumbin. Ninge follows Kara, does not want to follow Mang. Ngur under Kabri wants to come to Mang.
If sickness troubles people from Kara, Dembe, Ninge, Ngur, Tangana and Mang people join at Mang and make medicine. Each village bringing a goat. This medicine called "Mba" Made it last year: all brought goats. Mang has "NYA" medicine.
Francis was made chief because he led them well in war. Warwar made Francis chief.


Slaves = Kuer; Most slaves were Bororos Fulani or from Banyo side. They did not want men slaves except those born from women slaves. The men who were caught were sold or eaten unless they were very small and would not know where they came from. If you caught mature woman you kept her as wife. Women sometimes tried to run away but did not succeed often. But you could not mistreat a slave wife or she would run away. If men had slave wife her child will be free. If you have a small boy slave, and he grows up he will always be slave he can get Mambila wife and children will be free because of mo. At Tigul, there are some people from slave descent. John thinks that there are lots of slaves in Warwar but does not know for certain. People are ashamed of slave ancestry, and being born a slave is shameful...At Mang it is sometimes thrown at their face. Slaves did not get slaves of their own.


His fa. lived at Yambap, now dead. Mo. from Ndiel, but dead.She lived in Brandon 's compound. His wife related to Archibald . His fa. gave him Ngam medicine and he gave fa. a shilling. He can sell it to anyone. you can do it for a family member for nothing. but others must pay. Some give 2d., 3d., or 6d. He tells them how much to give. His mo. had same fa. and mo as Ian 's mo. John says: Some medicines will not work unless paid for, but not all." You can choose any man you like who has Ngam medicine to do it for you.


Nina (Br) about 55, is Ian 's mo. Her mo. was Karen . She says she is not related to Garth 's grand mo. came from family, He does not know how. Ian says that Garth is related to him through his fa. and therefore his mo. knows nothing about it.

FINLAY 's compound

Finlay 's wife is Zoe . About 28. Lived in Kabri. Her fa. from Kabri is dead. Her mo. called Gaynor is alive on French side. She has no children


When Mallan Taffi comes to Warwar he sleeps here.
Moss , about 25, hunchback, His mo and fa. both dead at Yambap. His mo has same fa and mo as Frederick '


Mallam Taffi married Archibald 's daughter, sometime ago.


Aidan , his mo called Diana , born Mang. She is now Theodore s' wife. Theodore is John ' fa's brother. Lives in Mang. Fa. of Aidan is Nicholas , dead. Lived in Tigul where he died. He is Garth 's bro. His fa. Nicholas was Garth 's fa's real bro.
Clare , girl of about 13-RON 's COMPOUND - Her fa. called Ishmael , died at Titong. Mo: Joanne is now married to Henry . Ron is her bro.


Julian is bro of Evelyn who is the wife of Robin and he came here with her. They same fa and mo. Dyson lived there a long time ago but moved away.


Clifford 's fa used to live in Herbert 's compound, where he died. His mo. died there also.


Josephine is I think not related to Brendan ; he just takes care of her.


Charles 's fa. is Conlan now dead. Used to live where Frederick 's compound is.


Clifford says Frederick is only Nor Tali. Ian says Frederick , Adrian , Archibald , Cadogan and Dyson are Rolf says Adrian , Archibald , Cadogan , Yanghshie, Harold , and Frederick are. Clint is a little below them. Frederick says Adrian s, Archibald , and himself are. Frederick says Adrian and Archibald are of same family.


One day some tree toads and a goat met for road. Treetoad walka walka and go far far and dug a hole. Went inside and find wa'er. Goat he looks for water and no find 'em. Treetoad told goat wa'er sweet, very sweet. Goat ask how can he get in hole? - Treetoad told goat to get long rope to tie around his neck and pull out treetoad. Then goat can come in. Goat got long rope, threw it down and treetoad tied it around his neck, then goat pulled treetoad out. Treetoad told goat: go in water as sweet too much. He drink wa'er but he was not sweet. He told treetoad: get me out! Treetoad said "No" and left...A big animal come. Animal say to goat: Where you from?" - Goat ask him to take him out and then he can drink sweet wa'er. Animal threw in rope and got goat out. Animal went in. Animal was antelope. Antelope ask to be taken out and goat say: Small time I go come" Goat told monkeys and they all came and carried stones. They threw lots of stones and killed antelope. Goat thanked monkey and went home. He talked to his wife and told her to made corn beer. They made much cornbeer. He then called monkeys. Large pots of beer filled and monkeys drank. A big lion came and saw them drinking. He said: "Whatie, goat, you call them monkeys and not me, and I am a big man!" Goat says he will bring him cornbeer and brings him pot. Lion drank it and said he was not full. Goat brought some more. Lion said it was not enough. And then he would eat all the goats and monkeys. All the cornbeer given to him and he left. Goat killed 2 fowls and monkeys ate them.

April 7th: LEMUEL 's STORY -

Animals from a line and had a race. 1st one to reach Kabri would be chief. A turtle climbed on an animal who ran very fast, an antelope. It rode on back. Just before finish line it jumped in front and crossed line first. When judges came, they saw turtle was first and made it chief. Turtle was big chief for them.

WILL 's STORY April 8th -

Once upon a time there was a Fulani woman who was going to town to sell her milk. On way to market she thought she was going to buy 10 eggs and these eggs would give her 10 chickens. And these 10 chickens would give her 10 sh. She would have other milk to sell which would give her 10 sh too, which would give her one £. She would take £ and buy a big beautiful gown and when she would go to dance place if any man wanted to dance with her she would shake her head from side to side. Forgetting she had a calabash of milk on her head, when she shook it, the calabash fell and was broken. This stopped all her plans. This story tells us we should not count our chickens when they are not hatched.


One day a man married a woman; he took lots of people and went to work for that woman's mo. All the people worked on the mo's farm. The wife went to cook the food and brought it to the farm and the people ate it all and worked again. The woman went back to cook food again. She wanted to find soup and plenty of vegetables. The people working the farm ate all the vegetables and when the wife came she did not find enough. Wife went back to house, Night comes. People go back to the house and saw that the wife was very vexed. Woman says "Why did you eat all the vegetables?" Everyman said it was not he. One man had taken the vegetables and was a thief man. They slept. When sleeping thief opened their mouths and put in some of the vegetables, he had them all in his back. And he went to sleep. He had washed his mouth with water. Daybreak. Woman says "how she go do, when she has no vegetables?" The thief said he agreed and told everyman to open his mouth. Thief opens mouth no vegetable. But others did likewise. and vegetables were seen. He had also stowed some in their bags. The woman was very vexed with the man who had married her daughter. Wife got some fowls she killed and cooked. They ate them then went home.


One day some chief, a boy was staying with him. The boy did all sorts of work and very much. When they investigated guinea-corn the boy went far to look at it on farms. A big lion came to the farm, the boy saw him and the lion saw the boy. The boy had only one spear, a very large and long one. The boy climbed a big stick, the lion wanted to climb but could not, He roared and roared as he wanted to catch boy. The boy shot the lion with his spear through the heart. The lion staggered and fell down. Boy thought that lion was playing dead but it was dead. The boy watched the lion and started to come down slow, slow. He came down and threw stones at lion. He went and touched lion with hands and saw he was dead. He ran to the village and told chief, and said to the chief to tell his people to come and see the lion. Chief said he was lying. Boy said send me with one boy and I'll show him. Chief said all right and gave him a boy. Boy went and saw it was true. Boy returned and told chief it was true; all people called. People came and chief led them to farm. People admired boy as he was small and had killed such a big animal. They carried lion and boy as he had done something big. They ran to chief place. The chief gave the boy some fine mats and gave him a young girl. They divided lion among the people. People went home.The boy stayed with girl and she got belly. Girl had pikin. Chief died. People did not know what to do, They said boy was like chief's son. They said that they would make him chief. He got big gown and many wives. The boy was not from the country but he got large country over which to be chief...

LEMUEL 's STORY - April 9th

One day some chief was planting calabashes. The calabashes got to be big, big. He made cornbeer plenty. He called many, many animals and they came. He sent one animal, a lion, to carry calabashes and lion went and reached there. He go touch the calabash and lift but calabash did not follow him. He came back without it, it was too big for him. They sent some monkey but it passed him too..They sent a rabbit with a horn, rabbit got there. He looked at calabash, he used horn and calabash began to run. Calabash followed him. Chief heard them coming. Lion said: "What small man can do so, when I could not do so!" The chief went to see. The calabash came in to compound. Chief gave rabbit fine mats. And gave him small girl pikin. They brought him all corn beer an gave it to him Lion got some too, but only small part. Lion drank it but said he not full. They divided the rest. Rabbit starts home with girl. Other animals vexed too much. Animals stood in bush and were going to kill rabbit and take girl away. Rabbit asks chief for small calabashes as he knew other animals were going to ambush him. Rabbit and girl got into calabash and go home. Animals saw it coming. But thought child had thrown it. Calabash climbs hill, and animals thought this strange.They went and caught calabash and broke it. Rabbit and wife ran away.

LEMUEL 's STORY April 9th

2 men on French side were walking at night. They saw small Bororo hut. Went into house. Made fire and slept. A big boa came and ate one men's legs. Man awoke with leg in boa's throat. Man asked his bro. If something comes to kill him will he run or not run? Bro says he would not run. Then he asked him to build up fire. Bro made fire. and saw snake and half-eaten man says "How we go do?" Bro says we'll kill him and carry him home to eat He got sharpened sticks, nailed through boa's tail. Man pulled out his foot. Foot came out with only small cut. They killed boa, took him home and chopped him.

Will 's Folk Tale.

One day somebody planted some calabashes. He asked his friends to lend him a tin so that he could cover the young calabashes. The friend did so. The calabashes remained for a long time and grew and the man's wife did not remove the tin. The calabash began to bear, it had lots of small calabashes. The friend came and asked for tin back. The woman who had planted the calabash was very sorry, she thought that she had removed the tin, but if she did so now all of the calabashes would die. The other woman said that it was too bad, but she must have her tin back at once. Woman went with her machete cut off calabashes and and took tin and returned it to original owner in spite of the fact that it killed all of her calabashes. After a year, the woman who owned the tin conceived, and delivered a young girl. At that time people put big rings on childrens necks so that neck would grow straight. She went to woman who had borrowed tin and said, "My friend help me with your ring, so that I can put it on my daughter's neck. Woman lent ring and put on daughters neck. Baby grew fine. After child five years old she asked for ring back as child well grown. Older woman said child not big enough yet and so it couldn't be taken off., and if it were it would have to be cut off. The owner of the ring said, No it must not be cut, when I gave you your tin it was in good condition, my ring also must be good condition. The other woman cried, saying if you insist I must kill my child, by cutting her neck to remove her ring. She repented for what she had done regarding the tin, so she cut childs throat and killed her baby. This story teaches us that we should be kind to others.

Lemuel s and Clifford s Folk tale.

One day two rats who no get wife. One rat take corn and made fufu and cooked with oil fine, then he put it in basket and went off carrying very long spear. He came out for road an man asked him "what you got there" Rat said I only got small food. Man say better I see, the rat cut off one arm of chicken and gave man small food. The man said thank you I was hungry and had no food. The man who took food said, go until you see black water then throw spear there. The rat came to dirty water and threw spear. Many people come out of water. One girl took all of the food and divided for brothers and sisters. After eating all but fine girl went into water. The rat took fine girl and returned to his house. The other rat still had no woman. Rat who had wife called Soll, the wifeless one called Tell. Rat with wife put her in one house but he slept in another house of his compound. Tell rat had no wife. Soll did not show him his wife. but he the wifeless one heard Soll laughing and he asked him with whom were you laughing. Soll said that he was alone. Tell went into house with fire as woman grinding corn flour, but woman hid. Tell took flour and left, when he did so he heard more grinding, so he quenched fire and went in again, again woman hid behind bed. Tell took fire again, quenched it again and came in again, did not see woman, so he returned to his house. Later he heard Soll laughing again. He sneaked out and peeped through other house's door. He saw woman grinding. He entered and woman did not run again. He asked Soll how he had gotten wife. Soll told him and told him to give hand of chicken to man on the road. Tell grinded corn, but did not do it well, cooked very small fowl and put no oil. Took old old spear and went out. Same man asked him on road where he was going. Gave him rude answer. Man told him to throw spear in clean water. Tell threw spear in clear water when he come to it. When people came out, he said that he would take women and go. Bad women with long teeth came out and divided the food with their brothers. He told women to come with him. Woman ask him to carry her on his back. They go. He asked her how long she should be carried, and she answered only a short way. When they had gone a way, she said she must be carried farther, and she repeated farther and farther until they got to his house. He then told her to bring guinea-corn. She told him to carry her to guinea-corn store. While climbing he hit his head on bamboos. Man rat took guinea-corn out and brought it down with his wife on his back. He told her to get down now and grind it. The woman said that No Tell must grind it with her on his back. He did and then cooked the food. He then told her to get off and eat, She said no, you eat and when you are full, I'll be full to. She stayed on his back. When he ate she would knock him with her long teeth on his head. He ate, took one handful of food for himself and then gave her a handful. They went to bed. When woman was asleep, he woke up, foresaw trouble and heard drumming from French side. He took head of bananas and put it near her so that she would think it was he. He locked door so that she could not go out. He went to dance. Wife woke up and was surprised. She went to the door and found it locked. She hit everything in the house looking for her husband. She then began to make medicine. Made fire. Then blew ashes in all directions and ashes went to French side and she followed them. Tell had been drumming and dancing. When she saw him she climbed on his back, and knocked him with teeth. Then they went back to his compound. Came to ant hill. Ant came out, he took one and chopped it, gave one to her, and then took turns eating one and giving her one. She was still on his back. He told woman to go into ant-hill and she would get plenty to eat. Woman went in and he stopped up opening. He started to light fire, Mambila style. Woman said what is happening. He set fire to to grass and to ant house. When woman was burned he ran away. Dry season time came. They burned grass. Man with his friends went hunting, when they came to place where he had burned wife, he found her dried bones. Bones flew up and hit him on fact. A man asked him for this bone, Tell said no, man insisted so Tell said go get four goats and I will give you bone. The man got four goats so Tell sold him bone. He said we will walk towards each other and when we hit heads you will get and keep bone. They bumped heads and stranger got the bone. Toll got four goats and went home.

GRIN medicine. Seen in Rodney 's compound April 12, 1953

Rodney , Adrian and Webon a big man from Vokude there. They were seated near the little fenced off area full of medicine in the compound.
The Big man Webon, blew his horn whistle. Then he shook out ants from sea shell. Then he took out red ochre from a horn. This he put on temples, top of head, both sides of stomach both shoulders and right toe of the boys and men there. Then put some on the women, making in additional zigzag marks between their breasts. Did same for tiny girls. Before this done a Yung bell and two metal zigzag rods had been planted on the ground, the rods stuck through leaves. Rods had feathers on them. The three big men had all touched the gong and applied red ochre too it. Bell struck. After women had been rubbed, Rodney opened the medicine enclosure and with a sea shell took out water from a pot in it. Each woman tasted it and then rubbed herself on the head and right toe with the water. During this ceremony all but one took off European articles. Then they filled sea shell with palm wine and something else. The big man sipped. People around laughed and joked quite frequently, at times even the man making medicine made jokes. Much blowing of Tschuk whistles during ceremony. Men and women often wandered aimlessly about. Men had all removed their head covering. Beer had preceeded ceremony. More beer drunk at interim. A chicken was killed and the intestines hung on the tree of the medicine enclosure. Sharpened bamboo sticks being made by Rodney and Webon. Each decorated with zigzag designs. People talking aimlessly. Bamboo sticks had been dipped in water of medicine enclosure. A bunch of white chicken feathers lying between the bell and metal stakes. Before the palm wine was drunk, as described a few sentences ago, Webon had taken two pieces of wood and touched each man on the head with them and both sides of belly. The bamboo sticks that were prepared are having white chicken feathers tied to them as well as some type of grass and leaf that had previously been soaked in water of enclosure. Bamboo sticks rubbed with ochre and water from enclosure. All in all 8 sticks made. Chick head stuck on one of the sticks. Chickens intestines and head were taken from medicine tree in centre. Intestines wrapped around the head on the stick by Rodney . Little pieces of green fruit stuck on stick. Bamboo sticks were made by Rodney and man from Vokude. Reason for making this medicine is so that breeze will not blow down corn, also stops witches from harming corn and people of compound. Iron stakes represent lightning which kills witches that come and spoil compound. The bell is of course Yung. Frederick us not here as this is not his kin group, Clifford came but just as spectator. The next day, saw bamboo with chickens head on Rodney s house. 2 on Adrian s house and one on another of Rodney s houses.


Called Guana medicine. Made for Mervin Bennett of Foster (Wakili) compound. Clarissa is girl that he married. Lisa of Elton s compound is mother in law. Mervin and Clarissa married eight days ago, she has 4 children from previous marriage, but none with this husband, Mervin . Wakili brings palm wine bought by Mervin . Woman of compound say that it is not enough. Mervin s face covered with leaf by Wakili, leaf called Bvulup. Once they meet, leaf taken away. The thing only lasts a few minutes. Much discussion over small amount of palm wine, but good natured apparently this is conventional. Johnson and other big men of brides family have come. Women say that they want two jugs of palm wine, one for men and one for women. Nyap (t) settles discussion by saying that as they all come form same village one must suffice. Mother in law and son in law sit on ground. Wakili rubs their palms three times with leaves. Then breaks off little pieces of leaves and gives them to hold. Nyap (t) tastes palm wine, then puts a bit on leaf and each drinks from leaf. Then they drink from same calabash. John took the calabash and a shilling from Solomon , he gave the calabash with palm wine to one of his kin who drank a cup then gave a cup to Johnson . Drink then finished by giving some to people present. When wine finished Wakili and Mervin left for their own compound. Nyap (t) is brother of Lisa


Mambila ring Yung bell so that people who are not in the family wont steal their property. His maternal uncle Johnson was vexed with him. When Johnson allowed Warwar to take chief, he did not consult big men of Zielinski s family. Samuel wants to go to D.O. and tell him that Warwar took their property. Johnson will go too. He can be made to swear bell, then will tell right thing. Witnesses Samuel would bring are Adrian who carried guns for Germans and Perry from Gembu Petil. Perry called Rudolf and Rudolf took one basket of corn flour and a chicken with Antony and met Germans at Tiker bridge. He wants D.O. To ask big people who Germans made chief. Frederick , Adrian , Niall (Kassala Tigul) Gua (Kassala Ndarup) Kassala Melvin (Mverup) Kassala Gavin of Yambap) should be asked. All of these will come and tell D.O. That native chief and European chief are different things. All will drink Yung bell to show that they are telling the truth. D.O. sent him to prison because he made a mistake. Prison is like school where people learned to do right thing. He will never steal money again. Chief is property of his family.

Carrying in grinding Stone seen in Ezra 's compound on April 15th.

Done by young and middle aged men of Ndiel. About twenty five men helped. Carried tremendous stone may have weighed up to 350lbs. It was carried on a stretcher. Stone tied to framework of sticks. Brought it from top of the hill behind the mission. Very rapid exchange of carriers, some of party carried others rested As they approached compound they sang very loud and those not carrying clapped their hands. Women all inside, women cannot see it being brought in. After it was laid down began to sing joke songs and two began to wrestle. Strutted about to show that they were not tired. Ezra put an infinitessimal amount of salt on stone and most of bearers put their finger on it and tasted it. Dancing and singing lasted about ten minutes then all dispersed. Ezra had helped a bit carrying stone.

Adrian 's compound. Eleanor is Adrian s brothers daughter, Julie bore her, Stephanie her mother. When Julie died Adrian took her

Native Chief

Ezra was native chief. When rain does not fall, they go to clean his grave and stop up holes. He was called Ngwa, that is why Gregory also is Ngwa.
Adrian told me that one should sit when lighting fire to show respect.


Josephine became sister when Carolyn married Sydney e mother. Josephine Sydney 's sister. Sydney is carpenter of mission. When he left, they did not go to Gembu with him but stayed with Brett who took care of them. They are not of Brett s family, but he could not marry them as they sleep in his compound.


Antony married Ferdinand 's mo., Janet ; when war came mo of Ferdinand went to Ngubin. They lived in a man's compound. whom he does not know. Man took Ferdinand s mo. as wife and conceived Ferdinand . War finished. Janet came back with Ferdinand . Ferdinand grew up here. Ferdinand 's mother delivered Mary and Kennedy was the fa. Mary and Ferdinand grew up together. Mary exchanged for wife for Ferdinand who was called Ruth . Ruth was Linden 's mo. and Ferdinand was father. Ferdinand 's mo and fa. not in this family. but because Mary was, as her fa, from this family, Ferdinand was accepted as one of them. As Mary was given in exchange F 's children cannot live here, and they belong to family. Ferdinand is just like a slave here. Ferdinand now lives at his fa's place at Ngubin.
His mo's fa and Lisa 's fa's mo had same fa. Lisa was mo of Compton .
Elton married Polly , French boy's mo, and he came here with this mo. His Fa at Tep.
Henry 's mo's mo and Cadogan 's fa's fa. had same fa and mo.

April 16th - '53 - KENNEDY 's SON

It was born today. A whistle blown signalled it was a boy. For a girl no whistle is blown Kennedy seems rather uninterested. Only one who seems really enthusiastic was Nyap, his fa. Tomorrow they will make Nam Kol medicine.


A 's daughter's child died. It died in Gembu yesterday. Adrian harangued her for a long time. She was silent but for one denial. Afterwards she knelt and untied the cloth that he had worn around neck to carry baby. Adrian told her to go back to Gembu as she should stay in compound when baby died. Adrian said that the child really died at Vokude. Woman's husband was at Gembu. When husband came he saw child dead. Husband told her to come and tell her fa. They came and saw him. He told her to go back with her husband and somebody she can come visit him. She has had about 5 children and all are dead. He asked what sort of "sick" they have got. She was "vexed" as she thought he meant that she had killed it. She repeated story of woman's trouble in pregnancy. Adrian told her to hurry and go home with her husband. A . Told her she should have brought child here. so that he could make medicine. Some old woman told her that she must not leave Gembu until medicine is finished. When it finished she went to Vokude instead of coming to Adrian and their child died. That is why Adrian vexed.


Nyap Tiker will make it. He collects grass from side of road. Kennedy got a red feather. No rush nor no solemnity before ceremony. Nyap's scrapes door with spear head, asking "is it a boy or a girl?" - Kennedy 's wife opens, says it's boy. Nyap closes door. He has grasses in his hand. Jack Kennedy ask Nyap can he smoke? Nyap says yes. Door opens, baby brought to door. Nyap rubs him. says "Kissum", spits on baby, then does same for Ian . Door shut. Spear stuck in roof by Nyap. Grass given to Kennedy and Ian , wraps around arm. Ian walks away, laughs and jokes. This is only the 1st step. Baby does not come out fully until can work farm. If girl had been born, people could work.


Frederick - when Mr. Ahrens here
Theo -=Adrian 's family - Mr Dunger came when he Kassala
Connor - Lance 's family
Cal - Adrian 's family, during German times
Frederick does not remember any further.
When Theo died Theobald and big people asked him to be Kassala. He said No. but they insisted. He collects tax, calls people for communal work, and decides who should carry and bring food to Europeans.


Ngwilie= what is inherited. Usually only small part of family inherits. Those sharing one mother or fa. The big man family does the dividing. If he is of same mo and fa as dead may keep most property but should give it to children of dead when these are to marry. If marriage by exchange, husband keeps wife's property, if not, her family takes it away.

Origins of Mambila and Warwar given by Frederick

People came to Warwar from the East, doesn't know who first came to Warwar.
One man and one woman were first of all Mambila. Doesn't know their names. Warwar, Vokude, Mang, Kabri, Kilatin and Ndarup all had one mother and father. Tschang made first man and woman. First man and woman had all big medicines. Ndiel settled first, then Tigul, Tscharl, Tiket. One man and one woman came first. Bonyilun was third generation of Warwar.
April 21st Ian says that Adrian 's family brought medicine to make fence. Before they came no one in Ndiel had it.

From Ian on 23 April Re INHERITANCE.

Ngwilliw is cargo left at death.
Memin, Tillmin Billa, Memin Billa, Tenmin Billa are all the same. (From what I gather it refers to a family group of varying range according to situation.
Frederick s family is called Ndipe Barbo, Hammond is Adrian s family name.
Man or Manum. Ian is Man for Duncan or for Lonum or Man Gamsi. I think that a Man is a lineage. It may be used to refer to different orders of segmentation, to express unity or disunity of certain groups. To refer to the fact that they are of same family, they use last common ancestors name.


Cahill says that he doesn't know his big father's name so doesn't know what Man he belongs to. his small father was Neil , who also small father of Lorcan , Pearson , Cecil Cahill , Haldane , Foster , Nick , Miles

Inheritance from Ian April 22.

If Ian were to die Frederick , Clifford , Craig , Andrei , V.Zielinski , Davey , Irving , and Charles would chop his cargo. If the people who are heirs have enough farms they give the deceaseds farms to his children, otherwise they can take them. Clifford and Vivian Zielinski would get big part. Joe his son would get most. Then Irving , then Craig , Clint next, then Andrei , Frederick would get smallest bit. Wife gets one fowl. Clifford and Vivian get most because Vivian s father and Ian s was one. It all depends on distance of kinship. If Ian dies they give a bit of tobacco to Adrian s family, they give tobacco to all who come to disposal of estate. If Ian s wife agrees one of his brothers goes to her brothers with spear and fowl and gets her as wife. If wife is old she may stay with her adult children. Palm wine trees are given to closest kin. Ian 's wifes estate would go to her kin. You can't give outsiders farms before death, but can give them money. Ron would get small small part of cargo.
All money made from farm produce belong to the man. Wife can take some of food from farms if children are still small and she takes them to her family's place. You cannot leave husband or wife money, but give them clothes. Vivian would get Ian 's compound. If Frederick not there Mallam Taffi would be big man for family, even if he continues to sleep in Mbamga. Wilfred is Mallam Taffi's father doesn't know who was paternal grandfather.
IRVING 's COMPOUND. Herbert 's wife is Irving 's sister.


They help each other in fight. If member dies, then all members bring some corn beer, theoretically they all have share in estate of the dead. Impossible to marry girl in one's Man. Head man for each Man. You can't abandon Man membership, but you can move away if vexed. If member steals something, then all members help him to replace it first time. Second time he should pay himself. John says that there is no way to kick a person out of Man.

John May 17. Why John doesn't eat monkey.

Longtime ago some man married his sister. Husband asked his family to come and help him work farm for his wifes father. When they came father killed chickens and goats for them. Sister of wife was very lazy. Her mother told her to go grind corn and cook chickens and goats. Girl obeyed. When all was ready she wanted salt to put in soup. She did not know what salt was so she asked mother what to put in soup to make it sweet. Mother told her to put sugar cane juice in soup. She ran to get sugar cane. She took juice out and put in soup. She tasted soup and it tasted bad. She went to father's medicine house and took salt and oil and put it in soup. She tasted soup and it was nice. She carried food to farm. The small calabash from which she had taken salt followed her. When she saw calabash following her she took it and threw it in bush. Crossed river and saw calabash coming again. She broke it into small pieces and threw pieces in bush. She went on and found calabash following her. When her father saw her coming followed by calabash he knew that she had opened his medicine house. Father said nothing, as he did not want people to know that his daughter had done shameful thing in opening his medicine house. He planned to give her a whipping when others left. He told her to give food to the people. All who ate food turned into monkeys. That is why don't eat monkeys. These people all came from a place called Gullup which is now a part of Gembu. All happened a long time ago. John says that if he stole from a medicine house would probably not turn into a monkey. He says that his people in such a case, since it was father's shame that made people turn into monkeys. If father had questioned girl and even beaten her, people would not have turned into monkeys, as long as he had told people not to eat the food. These people are from John fathers mother family.
Theresa cannot eat monkey until she is too old to conceive. John sisters can't eat, but their husband can, but must not eat it in house and must wash before coming into house. John would shoot monkeys if he had chance but would give meat away.
Mi Mbon Yal=I don't eat monkey. John doesn't eat Ndurup (a mole I think) but some do. He cannot even go to where mole dug hole. Once his mother passed over a mole hole and that night she had a fever and made the same kind of noise as a mole. He would not kill a mole


Victor first chief - Native chief of Kabri first
Latimer second chief. European chief. Germans made him. Not native chief. Got gown from Banyo.
Edmund third European chief.
Carver 4 European Chief
Adolf 5th European Chief

Ivor and Latimer were from Man Medi
Edmund , Carver , and Adolf from Man Badju
Adolf claims that he is Man Medi, but doesn't
know how. Others told me that they did not think
that he was.

Adolf says that they gave the chieftainship to Edmund because he spoke Fulani and was a good man. No one in Kabri has Nya nedicine they say.
Carver was of Edmund 's family as is Adolf .
Felix who was big man for Man Medi made Adolf chief. Kassalas had to agree. He admits that he has no real authority over people. Once ordered them to come and carry for Don Lawan, They all refused. Later Don Lawan fined them all.
Later people told me that now all living in Kabri are Man Medi. Charlton told me that Carver was his son, that is man who was chief, and wants chieftaincy to return to his family, apparently Adolf only distant relative.
Several people told me that they had come to Kabri as Fulani had given them trouble where they were previously, often it was their parents who came during Fulani era. Edmund , the chief or other chiefs gave them land for nothing as they were coming to sleep with them. An old man told me he came to live with his mothers fathers daughters son, because at Kara he had no one to cook for him. All his wives died. A man whose father was from Gishie, had his mother stolen Fulani does not even know her name. Later came to live with his paternal half brother.
Chief of Kabri has house of his own, Has 4 wives. They come to sleep in his house in turn as they cannot sleep in their houses. He says that he does not like to see his wives work or his children making a noise this is why he has house of his own, not for ritual reasons.
Kabri has six hamlets: Barki, Nduguli, Titsana, Noga, Tellier, Yallo. Wakili sleeps in Barki.
In one compound found two brand new wives sleeping in same house, but this temporary measure I have gathered the impression that there are more refugees in Kabri than in Warwar and also more living with distant kin.

John on Weaning helped by others

When child begins to walk they usually wean it. The last child often weaned later. The weaning process is either done by keeping him away from mother or rubbing pepper on the breast. Some send child away to mother's mother. This is quite frequently done, When a new baby is born older one must give up breast. Usually there is as least one month after baby is born before sexual intercourse begins. While woman is pregnant it would be bad to cease cease having sexual intercourse, it would weaken infant. Pregnant woman cannot eat snakes nor can husband. Neither can eat antelope. Some people taboo goat during this period. No pregnant woman can drink hot water or hot beer, but man can. Hot water is often drunk during fever, but by men, pre-married girls and post-menopause women. If snake is eaten by either parent child will not be born with feet, or if he has them they will be paralysed. The only abortient known to John is hot liquid. If unmarried girl is made pregnant she will drink hot water, also married woman may try this if she has very small child already. Coitus interuptus is practiced. It is bad not to want your wife not to have children and practice coitus interruptus unless there is a good reason such as having small baby in arms.

Death by John

When person dies he continues to live on earth, but is invisible. Live in bush but John does not know where. Dead sometimes make members of the family sick if the family group acts badly. If you mistreat your child they will make you ill or maybe the child. If you dont help living family members they, the dead will make you, your wife or children ill. If you don't at least from time to time throw some food on the ground for them as well as beer, the dead can punish you. Graves visited only of persons with some big medicines like Adrian 's father.

Jujus by John

These is special medicine which gives Jujus power. Archibald , Adrian , Nyap (t), Johnson are some having the medicine. They, that is the above people don't make Jujus. Nyap bought his from a man in Tangana. John says that he doesn't know why people want them.

Toilet Training John

About four years old training begins. If child defecates behind house he may be flogged. If child small he wakes nearest male to take him to bush to defecate. If child urinates in bed the father tells him not to drink water at night. If he continues to urinate at night, other children are told and they come and laugh at him.

KURUMI by John

This corn beer that some people join together and drink. About six people join together and form a Kurum. You can invite members of your family or others to join your Kurum. The members help each other on their farms. Each of members farms are worked in turn, and each supplies beer after his farm worked. Usually members are about of same age. Kurum members appoint a big man who keeps the peace within the group. He does not do farm work for group. He is the first to drink the beer at the meeting.

Parental Sanctions. John

If you disobey your father he can when he dies make you or your children ill. Women of your family, too can make you ill after they die, men of your family can also, but only people who died after reaching maturity. Only dead of your own family make you sick. Food sacrificed at meal times is only for your own family. Both mother's and father's kindred can sicken you, as well as any person to whom you can trace relationship, or know that they are related to you. Big ant tells you who is making you ill and why. If it tells you that some ancestor making you sick you find who makes the medicine to drive away the ancestor. The medicine called Nam almost all people have it. It works well if you have not sinned and the dead were punishing you for nothing. If you sleep with your sister, your mother if dead, is one most likely to make you sick. John says that plenty of people sleep with their sisters, and plenty get sick from so doing, both man and woman may be smitten. You tell the Nam medicine man how you have sinned and he may or may not agree to make medicine, he may refuse if it is a bad thing that you have done. John knows of two cases both of full siblings who slept together. In one case the man died and in the other the woman nearly died but one Kwabira agreed to make Nam medicine and she was saved.

Ancestors in Warwar called Tschang. They make you sick for the following:
Incest, Bad to children, bad to parents, grandparents, when they die they punish you. If they are vexed with you and you with them while they still alive, Jujus will catch you. When your father dies he may tell you to live in a certain place, if you disobey he may make you ill. If father or other relative says that you must take care of relative and you don't he will sicken you. If you eat and don't give anything to your living siblings or brothers who are there, parents (if dead) will make you sick. You must give siblings part of your food or it means that you want to make trouble for them. This rule only holds if you live near one another, in same compound or compound cluster. If you get angry with siblings this vexes dead and they punish you.
Jujus can make you sick also.
1. If you are vexed with parents. 2. If vexed with other relatives. 3. If you are a witch 4. If you are a thief. 5. If you transgress rules concerning Juju.
When they make big medicine with Juju they say Juju must catch witches and thieves, whether thief steals from family or not. However if medicine put to guard objects, medicine catches thief not Jujus. Yung bell is a Juju and it make you sick or kills you if you swear falsely. It catches you if you steal whether it is rung or not. If thief who is sick, confesses, and bell rung again he will get well. Kwurum too can catch you for same reason as Yung. Anyone can buy Yung or Kwurum medicine some young people have it. Nyap (T) has both Kwurum and Yung. Cecil (t) has both. Adrian has Yung may have Kwurum. Johnson has both. The reason that people are angry at prohibition of resort to sasswood is that Yung, Kwurum and other shoas not as efficient as it is in killing witches.

Grinding Corn

In Kabri we saw a man with Geli medicine touch the rubbing stone to his forehead, before woman can use it to grind, otherwise her head would hurt from grinding.
Lulh is used for village in Warwar dialect. Mburr used for hamlet or ward. Far is compound

Shaming Songs

It is usually the opposite Man that sings shaming songs. It is they also who curse offender publicly. Sometimes the two Man will fight if cursing too long or too violent. Fight only with sticks. John 's Man fought opposing Man at Mang, during his lifetime over some bamboo trees. Sometimes fights break out over women.


Gor - Nyap (T) his mothers brother gave it to him, while he still in mother's arms. He cried so much and gave his mother plenty of trouble so he was given medicine. Small sum given to Nyap 1/2d. Sometimes a bit of corn given instead of money. Medicine man gives child water, and says. "I give you water of Gori, you will not cry, you keep quiet, you will grow, you will not have dysentery. Then medicine man point at mother's breast and says "You drink from breast, when you have drunk from breast you will grow very fast. Then medicine man spits on babies chest saying Kissum. John says that he himself can give medicine but only with Nyap's consent. If John 's child cried too much, he would go to Nyap and ask him to let him use medicine. Nyap would say yes and not make him pay.

Tschuk medicine.

Time when they make Tschuk medicine. 1. When all of the grass has been cut and fields ready for corn, when corn planted they make it.
2. When big Juju party made behind the fence.
3. The first time guinea-corn or corn is used for beer. Medicine man recites his formula. For corn it is less important than for guinea-corn. For guinea-corn if Tschuk man not there he is sent for. If Tschuk man not there for first corn beer they drink it without him, but must not fill up beer basket. Done only once for new crop.
4. Hunting. When they start grinding corn beer for Tschuk dinner, the Tschuk man makes medicine so that animals will not run fast and will allow themselves to be shot.
5. If Tschuk man dies they make the medicine for him.
Tschuk medicine makes:
1. Good women marry town boys. 2. Bad women go to sat away. 3. Good animals come. 4. Bad animals go away. 5. Makes young boys attractive to girls and marry quickly. 6. Keeps strong winds away which would destroy crops. 7. Prohibits bad illnesses coming to town. 8. Makes witches sleep in their houses at night and not go out to eat people. 9. Keeps Europeans calm and saying good things. 10. Makes stranger Mambilas who come to town behave well. 11. Makes boys in school learn well and not forget, also act well. 12. Keeps local Mambila who are away travelling well.
Tschuk medicine men wear little black horns around their necks, these are used as whistles. Other medicine holders also wear like horns. Tschuk man blows whistle when wind becoming strong and stops it. When you use your new crops of corn or guinea-corn for beer, you give Tschuk man a mouse and first part of beer. The Tschuk used at birth of child is different. The Tschuk man here puts up Guli grass on gate of compound when new baby born and Nam Kol medicine has been done. This is done the first day baby taken out of doors. He comes to compound bringing Guli grass and others. He takes palm wine (this given by father). He nails two sticks on the gate and put a stick across top and tie Guli to it, so that people that come in have to pass under it. When Guli grass put up, medicine man says you are going to bear male children. The children will grow rapidly, they will not be ill. Palm wine then drunk and medicine man spits of Guli grass three times, all of the above is said three times too. Medicine man slaps hand of the father and touches his own right shoulder while father does the same. Father and Tschuk man join in drinking palm wine. This should be done before the Nam Kol man takes the child out.

Yung medicine by John

When guinea-corn grows they made medicine for it. Mvir, Ka and Tshimbir as well as other Jujus go behind the fence (Bel). Beer made aplenty.
You cannot sleep with any girl with whom you nave not previously slept during this period. However if you have been sleeping with a girl, even if not married you may continue. If you disobey the regulation the Yung bell will get you, also birds would eat everyones guinea-corn. If birds trouble guinea-corn much big ant will tell who is guilty, then guilty person will give a fowl to owner of Yung bell, who will make medicine for sinner. You can't sleep with a new woman until the guinea-corn is harvested. When guinea-corn harvested another medicine made called Yum also. After is harvested new sexual relationship can be contracted. At first medicine making bell is rung behind the fence. Mvir and Tscimbir are there. Two Jujus keep quiet they don't dance. They drink corn beer. Mvir is a fruit that is used as a whistle. Tshimbir is a calabash that people blow into. (Owned by Hal ) Ka is a kind of reed with holes in it that is spoken into and makes an odd noise. (Hal owns this) Guinea-corn is pretty high by this time, and is at stage where birds can eat it. All who possess a Yung bell have the medicine. Yung bell can stop witch and thief. If someone ill Ngam may say someone witching him and that ringing bell will stop them. (Ngambe is big and in Fulani. Called Ngam in Warwar.

Prophecy by John

John went to Kwabira and asked a man called Alf . The diviner took water and seeds of grass. He has client throw seeds in water. Looks into water. Diviner asked John what was the matter with boy he was enquiring about, John said he was sick. Paid 3d. Man looked into water, and said he thought boy would die, if John liked he could take boy to medicine man, but if medicine man asked high fee don't give it as boy will probably die. When he got home and told his father the latter said to ask someone else, so he went to Brady . Brady cut sticks. He told John boy would die. John did not pay him as Brady is a relative. John 's father believed it now and did not go to anyone else. A week later boy died. The boy was the son of his mother. At that time John was almost on the verge of marrying. When he was about to marry Theresa he went again. He went to Mvamba and paid 4d. The latter brought a stick and said that John would marry her. John did not want to marry her at all, he then said that he would marry her in spite of not wanting to. The girl that he really wanted to marry was called Ellen , the medicine man said that he could not marry her. Then John went to Brady who cut sticks and said John could not marry Ellen . He then asked about Theresa and man seemed enthusiastic and said Yes yes. John went to Ellen s place. He talked to her and she said that her mother and brother did not want her to marry John . Some of his brothers had married sisters of Ellen and more marriages would be bad. That day he was disgusted so he went to Theresa and she agreed. Her brothers and parents agreed so he married her.
Then he went to Ivan . He said he wouldn't marry Theresa . Ivan asked Ngam, Ngam said John would not marry Theresa .
Reason he went to so many was to test Ngam. He then asked Ngam whether he would marry Ellen . Ngam said yes if he tried very hard. By this time he was reconciled to marry Theresa . He went again to Ellen and she repeated same objections. Month later she married another man.

John on Kwurrum May 26, 1953

John added his info, actually mostly from Ian
If big man dies Kwurrum comes out. Kwurrum is little pieces of iron tied together. When shaken they make noise. Only comes out if dead man had borne children. If Graeme should die Cadogan would give it to Archibald to use. Only one Kwurrum in Ndiel and that owned byCadogan , Johnson has it for Tiket. The Kwurrums of all four hamlets would come. If Ian were to die Archibald would use Kwurrum, Johnson for Tiker, Tscharl and Tigul would also come. Vokude would send one as Ian 's family made agreement with Vokude. Tigul would bring another type of Juju as they don't have Kwurrum, the same true for Tscharl. Only people with whom your family has an agreement or people from the town itself bring Jujus at death, or people may also come from your father's town. Kwurum dances is not hit like Yung. Kwurum brought to kill witches if witch killed the dead. If people claim more from estate than due them or don't pay their debts to estate then Shoa or Kwurum will kill them.
When locusts come the Kwurum taken out and shaken. It is told if witch brought locusts, then witch should die, but if God brought them it is alright. If cold comes early used in same way. People don't swear on Kwurum as they do on Yung. Ian gave a fowl to learn how to use it, but never did.


Ngui medicine men are those who can tell whether people can turn into leopards or not. No one in Warwar has it. A girl from Tiker turned herself into a leopard (Ngui) but medicine man from Yambap cured her. Leopards sometimes kill man but only in self defence. People know they are turning into leopards. But medicine has to be made in order to stop them. If leopards fall and are shot then the man dies. If leopard is injured unless the Ngui medicine man comes rapidly and makes medicine wounded person will die. Before medicine is made full confession must be made.

DEAD - by Ian and John

Some die because of witches, some die because they are witches. And some God takes. Tschang made the world. Probably lives in ground. Ian dreamt about dead people (Tschang) but did not worry him nor made him sick. Mo. of Archibald saw the dead under the mountains surrounding Warwar. They build houses and grow carrots.
NAMING CHILDREN AFTER DEAD does not mean any form of resurrection. Mo. of Ian died (She is still alive!) She saw her sister and husband who had already died. She saw boxes and boxes full of fine cloth and meat. Her husband and sister told her she must go back as she has 3 small children to take care of. They took grass and water, sprayed it on her and she woke up. She had been unconscious for some time - she had been "dead" all day.
A pagan man died. When he woke up he said he had seen bad people carrying heavy loads of firewood all the time with no place no sit down. Ian says he does not think people have spirit helpers.


When new house built So medicine is made to keep witches away. And Lobal medicine made to keep peace in new house. Same is done for new compound. Most compounds have Mangara trees growing in the middle. This to keep witches away. But some witches can pass this Mangara tree and So and that is why they regret not being able to use Li (sasswood)


If you confess to being a witch and using poison (Tom) then medicine man may refuse to make medicine for you and make you die. This is only reason for which medicine man can refuse to help.
Witches bury hair under ground to bewitch people. There are people who can find the hair, get it out and cure person. This medicine called Bol or Bal. Garth has it. They rub their hands together. When the hands begin to act wildly this shows where hair is. They also find lost things in the same way. Ian has seen them find hairs and lost objects.


Some are true some are lies. Ian dreamt that he would see special man from Ndarrup. Next day man came.


Called Ngur Ya. Many different types. Cuts hands and toe nails and hair and takes dirt from skin. Finds grass and joins it with dirty nails. Makes fire. In broken pots puts thing in and burns them. Puts ashes in cornbeer. Then join with beer drinking one cup of beer. Man only pretends to drink. He washes cup and brings it back. This makes woman fall in love.


If graves have holes on the top then they know corpse has left. This is only true for big people. Corpses comes out when family does something bad, but only if lots of bad things are so done. Then they give their family fever. Nyena Nyu comes and blocks the hole with mud. Same place will be peaceful. Dead people when out of the grave stop rain, because people be bad; Ron cleans the grave of Adrian 's fa. To make rain. He is Nyena Nyu. They also take weeds from grave.


All family have witches. They use the open stomach of dead to see if man is witch. People go and see by the dozen. Inside a bag of the body but not the stomach, if there was meat it showed that man was witch as it was meat he had eaten.
If your father is witch man and does not give you medicine then you no go be witch. Fa. can give witch medicine to girl or boy. Mo. can also give it to both. Witch can give medicine to anyone even to people not members of family. You can get it any time both old and young are witches.


If person gets very sick either they or family go to big ant. They themselves go unless very sick. You tell big antman that brother is sick and you ask whether he will die or not. The sick man has rubbed a stick on his forehead and spat on it. This stick given to Ngam man. Stick and stone put into hole of Ngam. If bad, Ngam moves stone. If good sick man will live. Ngam moves stick. He Ngam takes stone you ask Ngam whether medicine can be used to make him well. You ask question like this "If we ring bell on his head, will he be well"? For yes Ngam catches stick, for No he catches stone. If it says No, then you ask it about other medicines like Ngonum, Ngupshoa, Nu, Tu, Nga or others. If Ngam agrees to Nu you come to sick man and tell him that. Nu man obtained and makes medicine. You also ask Ngam whether sick man should be taken away to avoid witches. If Ngam says he is being witched, you start asking more questions. First If sick man is sick because he is a witch and Yung caught him? If Ngam says, yes, then you reverse stick and stone and expect Ngam to give same answer. If it does not you stop. Then you ask Ngam whether you are witching him? - if not you, then fa. mo. and other relatives until guilty person found. If mo. is the witch all big men of compound and women are called and other big men. You tell them that man is not sick for nothing. You say that big ant says that woman is witching him. You tell woman that know she is guilty, to come and make medicine. Tomorrow he must be well. If man does not get well tomorrow, you call all people and point out witch. If she does not stop there is nothing you can do about it. Sometimes her husband make her leave but not always and they dont try to make him do so. Some agree that there are witches and sick finishes.

JUJUS At Play by Ian

Big Jujus of Ndiel and Tigul play here, those of Tiket and Tscharl play at Tiket. One day Jujus from here go to Tiket and the following day they all come here. It is play Jujus that go to steal corn from farms. Big men eat and Nyena Nyus eat stolen corn. Many strangers come. Nyena Nyus sit with Warwar people, other strangers don't. Archibald is person that shows people how to do it and gives them guinea-corn. Jujus play so that guinea-corn will grow well. Adrian and Archibald both have Bel medicine, that is what makes them big men as well as Adrian s Tschuk medicine. Archibald and his son Thor make the fence. Actually Archibald does it, and Thor will do so only when Archibald dies. Ian says whether leaf on tiny plot comes out or not, it Adrian plants guinea-corn others follow. The ant eggs under stone not used in Warwar bit in Yambap according to Ian . Clifford makes experimental farm also according to Ian . Last locust infestation came to Warwar before mission settled here.


Bad Ngam is one who does not give same answer both times. Witches sometime bewitch Ngam, either it does not move stick and stone or it contradicts itself, this done night before Ngam questioned. Adrian has Ngam. First question asked of Ngam is which sex is witch. Then mention two families, mother's or father's. Then ask which compound? Any compound of family can be In olden days threatened witch with Li medicine.

Robert 's mother of Charles is the first one to eat guinea-corn in Ian 's family. Her husband was older than Frederick . Her husband was Conan .
Adrian 's paternal half sister was a witch. She was Ian 's wife. When threatended with Li medicine she refused to take it, she admitted to having bewitched her brother. Li only given if person says that they are not witch. Some people send wife who admits to being witch away, some don't. You cannot make your brother leave even if he admits to being witch. A member of another family cannot witch you unless one of your family calls him. Woman witches are worse as not ashamed. More people die from being witches or leopards than for other causes. Old people die for nothing, but younger people die for being witches, being betwitched or being Ngui (leopard) Haldane died as he was witch. If person killed by Li. it was not allowed to perform autopsy.
Gi medicine is one in which small worms are put into wounds to join severed tendons of flesh.
Ian says that he sent his daughter Sarah to stay with her mother's kin as no one to bring water for them.

Ian has two work party Kwurrums

1. Denzil , Reuben , Caspar , Ezra , Finlay , Thor , Herbert , Keen , Ian . Herbert is big man of group. Ian not married when joined.
2. Ron , Charles , Graeme , Lorcan ,Kirk , Pearson , V. Zielinski . Ian is big man and first to drink in group.
Kwurrums just work farms together, but parties given for fellow Kwurum members even when they don't work farm. Kwurum members are special friends though not sand as BIL.


Wrestling may be done at any time. The day for beer party for Jujus is time for important wrestling. Any man or child can wrestle. A man could challenge man but would not. Songs sung such as: I my father, my father, I in the Juju, is it a rock that throws me on the ground (Person who sings this means that their is no person stronger than him but Jujus. Chorus answers singers each verse with Woooooo, which means nothing. After singer has finished the chorus repeats woooo, until a challenger comes and while the wrestling is in progress, until one man thrown. No challenge should be unanswered. However a person who is injured or not well can go out and sing, and when challenged say that he is sick and cannot wrestle. After one bout, the winner may retire if he is hurt or tired. If someone wants to sing, but does not want to wrestle, the man singing when someone comes to touch his hand must retire and the new man sings. Loser of match may touch hand of winner and remain singing while winner retires. If you lose you should not rechallenge winner, if you do it means that his is vexed and this is bad thing, rematch would not be allowed. It is usually known who best wrestler in hamlet. You avoid wrestling with members of your wifes family, as would be ashamed of throwing them, unless you are in their town. In another town you would not challenge them.
John says that wrestling success has nothing to do with marriage.
Medicines that give you power to wrestle called Gullup = lion, some Shoa medicines and Dar. Dar is some grass, he doesn't know name, is put inside snake skin or cow skin, skin sewn up and tied on arm. When you wrestle you say Dar and rub skin, this medicine helps you throw opponent. John has Dar, he got it from distant brother. Paid 6d for it, but returned it when he was baptized. Opponent tries to rip medicine off. Shoa medicine given by Kirk , a member of J 's mother family. Grass called Libi, Nguimi, Lebir, and Birr (camwood) Yu, are joined together. Both Kirk and John held grass. Kirk says I give you this Shoa medicine you will be heavy like Birr (camwood) I give you this Nguirmi medicine, you will be strong and no one will throw you, I give you this Lebir when men try to lift you, your feet will be like the roots of Lebir and hold fast. I give you this Libi it will help you. Two pieces of Birr (camwood) sharpened and put in hair, saying you will be strong like Birr, other put under right toe nail and cut protruding part off, and says if man picks you up you will be heavy like Birr. Then he took bitter leaf (Yu) and hits John on shoulders, saying your skin will be bitter and if you throw a man and he comes to bewitch you at night, he will vomit as your skin is so bitter. He then joined Lebir, Libi, Ngwinie, and tied then on J 's right hand and on right foot. Then he spit on J 's hand and said Kissum. After saying Kissum he said you will be stronger than the man who wrestles with you, man's eye will be blinded and he won't see you, and you will throw him, you will be stronger than he, then repeats Kissum. Then takes John 's hand and makes him face East and Kick. John paid 6d. John can make it for others. Medicine helped him and made him stronger than before. John does not have Gullup medicine.
After awhile wrestling is stopped if neither man seems to be winning. Anyone can stop it, this often done so that contestants wont be vexed with each other. Sometimes wrestlers get vexed but don't start real fight.
Dancing and singing slightly competitive but not so much as wrestling.
Best wrestlers given big medicine before Jujus beer party as they will do most wrestling against strangers. Day they start grinding corn for beer party, you must not sleep with any woman if you are going to do serious wrestling. They will cook you soup in new pot. Women can also eat from new pot. You wont eat pepper, wont drink water or beer in new calabash, no European salt, given first part of Fufu. Give medicine very early in the morning so that women will not see. It is made in the bush. You will not sit on chair or let women touch you. Won't drink much corn beer, 2 cups at most. They will buy you meat to eat, and you will not be allowed to eat soup made by women, but meat is cooked by women. Strangers to village need not obey these regulations but will probably have been given medicines. If local champions are beaten, the other town will sing songs when Warwar people come to visit them.

Series of JUJU Feasts by John

Mbamga Yambap - Shoa - Vokude - War.
When Vokude people finished they ask people here to make feast for Jujus. Corn beer is made ready. All big Jujus come and dance and go behind fence. There they drink corn beer. When they drink man rings Yung bell, ring it for stopping thieves and witches, Johnson rings it for Tiker he says if strangers come to make trouble, fight with knives, or spoil guinea-corn Yung should catch them. Jujus dance behind and men shout and blow horns. Johnson leads them to Foster compound. Foster gives him a jug of beer. After corn beer Johnson blows a Juju and all shout, Jujus dance. Then Johnson leads them back to his compound. Much corn beer brought. After beer Foster wrestles Johnson . Less wrestling now than in the past. Jujus play for three days. The day that they want to make medicine the boys who have not yet seen Juju led behind fence by Johnson with their eyes covered. Boys carry a small black fish each. Put fish down and go behind fence. Johnson covers each ones eyes and asks each one whether he has seen Jujus. Boys say Yes three times. Juju shakes all the time. Third day the Jujus beg from women, given fish, salt, meat, argusi, groundnuts. Next day they cook all of this food, all eat it. Johnson gives Guli grass to people from all over Warwar. Johnson gives some mud to all who ate food cooked for Jujus, and makes them lick it from their thumb, and he puts some on their chest. Then Jujus go away. Johnson tells all not to work that day.
When tree falls behind fence in Tiker as happened today, no one from Tiker can work, they asked people from other hamlets not to work and request honoured as far as I could tell. Johnson says that the reason he wrestled Foster is that their fathers did this. Doesnt know whether Foster 's father had special medicine or not. This wrestling between the two of them helps guinea-corn grow.
The trees behind fence cannot be touched with knife or rains would fall and winds would spoil crops. Nyena Nyu may be sent for to cut down trees. People shout at them, what are you doing, you must not cut trees but the Nyena Nyu continues. This applies to fenced areas in Ndiel and Tiker.


Ian says all have enough land. Frederick has most. Rent unknown, after using anothers land you can give them chicken. Usually gets only one farm per person. After using farm for three years you call person who has given it to you and give them beer party. Ian has three farms he is working this year and 2 that are lying fallow. He bought one behind R.H. near mission. Rest belonged to his father's father.


Many pay up to £8. Mothers family takes £6 and returns two. First give big spear and cock. Girl makes corn beer and they made medicine for her called Felip. After £8 brought and £2 send back girl goes. Big chicken feast for girl 14 to 20 12 chickens and one calabash of palm wine given to father of girl. Before girl leaves her own village, Yung bell rung on her head. Husband and his friends help girl's family on farm. If girl runs away, groom can reclaim money and the twelve chickens given to father. If husband sends her back, he cannot claim. If children are born to marriage he does not get all back.

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