{Notebook 6, not typed up by Rehfisch

First sequence, pages unumbered in original }
Selwyn head of Makka
Edmund - Li medicine
Get the distribution of property of xxx of the big men who died in the past
Also get a history of the farms that people today are using.
How did xxxxx translate Satan Hell
Satan = Mahal
Hell = Tsir Bviani or Waa
Holy spirit = Chuchu dalli

How are things divided within a hamlet? Do they divide first Adrian and Frederick and let them subdivide or how
See if people will xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx made are called both
Percival says that Tsafi is big medicine - tasafi is unknown here (according to Nyap and Myron . Check on Frederick of Gwol and Tschquarl)
Nov 23rd V. Zielinski s Housebuilding
Deverell was acting like quite a card. He had drunk a bit too much corn beer. He insulted and cursed people ( said "thou mother's head"). He also ordered people around. Told them that they did not know how to work. He played as if he were going to flog V. Zielinski s mother. She took a stick and chased him about. John told me he came and got 6 d's worth of corn beer from Theresa and then refused to pay after it was drunk up. This is evidentally a habit of his. He got some matches from the mission saying that he would buy eggs. He said that he had no intention of giving the eggs. And today was laughing at the missionaries that he had cheated. Evidently he talks so well that the people dont get angry with him. After the house was finished V. Zielinski s bought out 5 pots of corn beer that he poured into a small basket, and gave 1 pot to the big people. The big people being Nyap of Tiket, Archibald , Gregory , Deverell , Harold , Herbert .
The people said they hadn't been given enough. Jake was the ring leader. V. Zielinski s got angry. Garth told him not to be angry and just beg them to take what he had offered. However Leon was angry and refused to say that it was not enough. The argument lasted for about half and hour during which time only the big people drank from their pot.
V. Zielinski s stalked away. Garth went to get him and brought him back. Nyap (Tiket) made a pacifying speech, saying that the corn beer was not very much, but that the work was not very much either.
Earlier Deverell had twisted up some elephant grass and had placed it near the door of the house, pretending that it was medicine, but actually it was just a joke. All laughed.
Deverell was much laughed at. He went and carried 4 jugs of water top the mud pile. The people laughed saying that this was womens work, but he said that he was the chief of the women.
He flogged a little boy playfully but just the same the boy cried. Deverell is the person that the parent's threaten the little children with.
He also said that if the Europeans weren't here he would kill them all, as they didn't work well. He also said that they would all be killed if wars returned as they didn't know how to fight anymore.
After I left V. Zielinski s produced two more pots. Nyap (Ndiel) says that it was true that he at first did not give enough. But he says if V. Zielinski s had told the people that there wasn't enough and some time he would make some more for them, they would have been pacified. As it was he told them if that if they didn't like it they could go without drinking any. This is what vexed the people.
Harold drank the first cup of the big peoples pot. He took three sips and spat after each on the ground. This was for Tschok. As Adrian is still alive (Adrian has Tschok) Harold could not speak the formula, if he had that would have cursed Adrian .

Nov 23 Nyena Nyus
Nyena nyus may take the first cup of corn beer served. If they do they take three sips each time spitting it on the ground. They recite a formula saying that the peole of the compound will not get sick. This of course applies only to the nyena nyu of the person that is giving the beer.
Nyena nyus may not steal the beer at a sale, but they may at a feast where the beer is not for sale.

Nov 23 Court Cases
Yesterday the chief ringing the bell so that it would punish all those who took cases to court before trying to settle them in the customary manner, seems like a final effort (perhaps not so final) to keep the control of local affairs in the hands of the traditional leaders. I have yet to talk to anyone who thinks that the Mbamga court is a good thing. All fear it, and largely I suppose because Mallam Taffi has been very crooked. In the few cases between Bororo and Mambila, when he is working at the court at Gembu, he generally favors the Bororo as they evidently quite frequently send him meat as presents and even a bit of money. The reason that he has now been sent back to Gembu is that the D.O. suspects that he is up to plenty of tricks, but has no proof.

Nov 24 Copulation.
One can sleep with ones wife even after one has married children. There is no age limit to copulation as long as desire is there.

Jan 3rd Language.
John says that Tep language is impossible to hear the few words that I heard are very very different from those of the other Mambila languages that I know. Bang language too he says is incomprehensible. This probably due to Kaka influence.


Oct 11 .122
Oct 12 .934
Nov 1 3.000
Oct 13 2.690 River flooded
Nov 4 trace
Oct 14 .018
Nov 5 .119
Oct 15 .282
Nov 6 .250
Oct 16 .050
Nov 7 .013
Oct 17 .013
Nov 8 .173
Oct 18 1.334
Nov 9 .000
Oct 19 .450
Nov 10 .004
Oct 20 .550
Nov 11 trace
Oct 21 .240
Nov 12 .000
Oct 22 .000
Nov 13 .135
Oct 23 .332
Nov 14 .038
Oct 24 .000
Nov 15 .114
Oct 25-28 .045
Nov 16 .023
Oct 29 .000
Nov 17 trace
Oct 30 .000
Nov 18 .663
Oct 31 .000
Nov 19 24.000

Nov 25 Work after Planting and weeding guinea corn
Major work is building houses.
Women cut the grass and bring it to do the roofing.
Reggie 's compound 2 new houses (1 eating house, 1 for Lawton )
V Zielinski 1 new house
Nyap's compound 1 new house (for ??Gelbua/Cuthbert ??)
Rolf 's compound 1 new house (for second wife)
Garth 's compound (home for Lawton ) Charles (eating house)
The women spend a fair amount of time getting firewood. Some go up as far as the top of the hill leading to Gembu. By time I have timed them and they take as long as approx. 3 hours.
Pot making, basket weaving, mat making and weaving are the most commonly indulged in domestic arts.
Basket making and mat making more commonly done between corn and guinea corn. Pipe making is not much done at this time, but new pots are made in practically all compounds. They say that some of the pots are for sale, but as they almost all make them I don't see who they sell them to.
A bit of time is spent by the women going after cassava, yams, and vegetables. Cassava yams and vegetables are considered to be womens work, but men frequently do the work too.
Some men take corn etc. to distant markets.
Men also spend a fair amount of time making medicines at this time.

Nov 25th Burning Farms
Yesterday for the first time I saw a small fire lit to burn grass. At Kabri they have started burning already. In a few weeks it will start in earnest.
Nov 25th Brent Chief's Month.
It will start when new moon comes next.
The first person to see the new moon shouts and runs to the chief. He was given cock. This is old fashion, but not done now.
>From that day on he retires. Only the big people can see him. He can only see big big women. His daughters or "sisters" prepared chop for him. He stays retired for 20 days. If there is enough chop all people of Warwar can make corn beer. If not all have enough not all will make it.
They used to come all with shields and spears, but now they only use one or two that are in compound rather than haphazardly.
First skin of tiger and chair are bought out. These carried out by nyena nyu. All people dance feverishly. The chief follows the skin and chair circles dancing field 3 time slowly. Then he dances around it three times, then goes back to his compound. He comes out fat. He says that the medicine makes him fat. He doesn't know about vomitting.
They only hit him with the bush cow tail first time that they made him chief.
They used to have iron figure like man, but now they don't have it now. Only Dorofi chief now uses.
They dont make medicine when he is retired but only the day he cooks corn beer.
??Lalina/??Labina?? makes medicine for him that day. They don't know what its for, but they heard that their fathers said that if they did this then illness would not come to Warwar and chop will grow well.
When there was no native chief they cleaned the chair and ??brushed?? out bush cow tail on day chief was supposed to come out

Nov 25 Njimshoa
Harry 's compound. Njimshoa is a type of grass. This is put on wall of a house being built, so that if anyone comes to spoil the house he will die.

Nov 25. Edmund got Tu medicine from Johnson .
He says he has big big father with Johnson , but different mother. Mason was his father and Lynton was Johnson 's.
Larry was Man Clint : Alistair was father for Arnold .
Arnold was brother of Rudolf , but he doesn't know how.
Edmund is the man who is going to make it.
It is made for small boys with fever. It has ??Tatschop??
He is the only man whom Johnson gave it to. Nyap didn't want

Nov 25 Edmund on Li (sasswood)
They put Len in prison for giving it. Len was put in prison for using it.
Edmund says that when they put Hereward in prison, they threw it away again. He is the only one in Warwar who has it except Harry .
He says now people go to Mbamga.
To make the potion one licks the wood and grinds it into very fine powder. The wood comes from the French side.
Edmund thanked me for telling him it was legal to use it on chickens. Since Len put in prison (Mayo Daga) he has been afraid to use it. Len died shortly after returning from prison. I believe that Len was imprisoned either shortly after Schneider arrived or a bit previous to his arrival.
Nov 25 Women who can see Jujus.
Amanda - Cahill 's sister
Angela - Nyap's sister
Amanda had same mother but different father. The jujus made her eyes turn, which really means that she had epileptic fits but they think that it was caused by jujus, so they showed them to her. She can make ??Jir?? medicine. She is dead. She did not bear any daughters. If she had they would only have taught the daughter if the jujus had made her eyes turn

Angela - Now married on the French side. Her husband died recently but she stayed there. They taught her the medicine after Amanda died, as only then did the medicine turn her eyes. She was married at Tscharl at the time., She later left her ??shualong?? and went and married at French side.

Nov 25 Kinship of Edmund to Johnson who gave him Tu medicine.
Len was delivered here. Leonard was his father. Len 's mother came from Tscharl. Clint was father of Leonard .

Nov 25 Tu Medicine
The day Johnson showed people the Tu medicine, Nyap was away. He showed it to Rowley , Elton , Edmund etc. Later he took it from all but Edmund . Nyap said that he didn't especially want it when Johnson offered to give it to him.

Nov 25 Neal and Gertrude
He gave her firewood once.
He has given her salt for 2d, oil for 1sh and meat for 1 sh.
He has worked farm for her once. He has only been courting her for this year.

Roland says he has no Ya.

Nov 25 Food
For one day one large calabash of corn is ground. That is one calabash of corn flour. The calabash is about 2 times the size of the measuring cup used in Ndiel.
Theresa is grinding a mixture of corn and guinea corn to make corn beer.

Nov 25 Labor for Frederick
Frederick says
He hasn't sent cry yet. Mbem will go from Frederick 's family and one will go from Adrian 's family will go.

Cahill says that they sent Karel . They divide the work according to the four Mans. If Cahill s man sends one, next time they send one from Man Max , next Lawrence and next the other Man. There is no special order. Cahill says that one man is to go from Tiket, 2 from Ndiel, one from Tigul, one from Tscharl.
The next time Tiket will send two then after that Tscharl will send two, then Tigul will send two.
They will pay them one shilling a day. Evidentally the first five will work a few days then they will be replaced by others. All of the other hamlets have sent them except Ndiel.

Nov 25th At housebuilding
Clifford says yesterday.
Went to build house for Aylmer 's mother in law.
Clifford , Aylmer , Charles , Langley , Brent , Derek (Pearson 's compound) Pearson , Joshua (Pearson 's compound), Marcus , Chapman , Ellis , Lester , Lorcan . No women went.
Joshua is trying another daughter of Aylmer 's wifes mother. The Tiket people all went to help Joshua .
Langley is Aylmer 's brother.
They finished house and corn beer. They gave 12 pots of corn beer.

Nov 25 Shoa.
About 7.00 we heard shoas dancing at Archibald 's The shoas were Tschimbir, Ka, Mvir.
They danced for about 20 minutes. Archibald started with Tschimbir. Then Roland , Gideon , Brent , Marek , Clint , Thor , Lonnie . Archibald didn't dance. Clint danced for just a short time. They danced around Archibald s compound, blowing the jujus and shaking rattles and singing Oh Oh Oh.
They do this so that people will know that next market they must make corn beer.
Strangers can blow the jujus if they wish. Actually most compounds seem to be preparing corn beer for Jujus already, that is before warning of his arrival.

Nov 25 Teknonymy.
The mother of the husband may use the term "mother of ---" when talking to her husbands wife. The husbands father may not, he calls her Ta. The "sisters" of the mother may also use the teknoymic device.
Nov 25th. Lying
Lying is bad. John says that saying that one paid more for something than one really did, even in making market is bad. The person buying would be vexed if he found out the lie, firstly and more importantly because he paid more for the article, secondly because the man lied to him. In other cases of lying, even if no material disadvantage occurred one would be angry. However, one would not be likely to confront him with his lies.

Nov 25th Carving.
Nyap of Tiket is making me a ??Talsilop??/??Talulop?? which is a female figurine, he promises to make a male one too.
His tools are a knife, a chisel like instrument and a hammer. The knife he uses with a straight blade to cut, and when he wishes to scoop out a hollow, he bends the blade . The chisel he uses to make small holes and chipping out irregularities.

Nov 24th Dreams.
Beverley - She dreamt last night that (John 's child) Amos died. She wondered why he died as he was so well (LN.)

Nov 24th Martin 's house.
Today they started mixing mud. Martin , Nicholas and Garth were working on it. They were mixing mud. Nicholas and Martin carried the first few pots of water as their wives were busy cooking chop. Later they will help them with water.
The earth is obtained from the slope just East of the compound.
He isn't going to make corn beer to have people come help him, as he hasn't enough chop. As they add water to the mud, they pound in with their feet dried grass.

Nov 24 Tschakal Medicine.
It is a medicine made to stop pains in the chest. The patient eats a few ashes. Grass is waved over the patients head and his forehead as well as his hearts {sic} are touched.
This medicine was being made by Mike s wife for his daughter and Thor 's wife. The daughter now stays in compound. She is married to the man who sleeps in the compound who comes from Mang.
The daughter of Nathan s wife is Langley 's real sister.
Alec is not here, he went to Mang to see his mother.

Nov 24 Wounds from poison arrow.
John says
If man was shot witha poison arrow he was brought back to his town. Put in his house under a large basket and made to stay immobile. Very hot fire was lit next to him making him perspire. Only his brothers, mother and mother in law could see him. Ashes were poured on his head and also he was made to sit on ashes.
If he moved about he would die. They knew that the poison was out when he sneezed.

Nov 24th cannibalism
The last part of man to eat was the sole of the foot and the palm of the hand. They used to eat bits on the battlefield raw, but most of it was taken to town. The raw part was eaten with pepper.
The corpse was cooked outside and women were not allowed to eat it. Only the big people could eat it. One had to eat hands begining by the back, otherwise if you started in on the palm, if you bit the tendon, the fingers would snatch your eyes out.

Nov 26th Jujus dancing last night.
The jujus danced for two reasons. One to let people know that the big medicine was to be made next market. Also that from now on they cannot sell food to strangers who will take it away. They can sell it to strangers only if eat it in the village. It can not be taken out of the village.
The above is Clint 's explanation.

Nov 26th Work
Clint spent about 4 hours today cleaning a place from which he could scare away birds. This work begins about now as the guinea corn is begining to come out.

Nov 26th
John has heard that Johnson 's fathers father was from Man Neil .He stole his wife (Rudolf 's mother) from Man Bussami. Latest report is that Rudolf did conceive Johnson .
The fathers father of Johnson that is the man who conceived Rudolf and who stole the woman had her for only a few nights. She was the wife of a man from Man Bussami who had gotten her by exchange. Man Bussami retrieved her.

Nov 27th Adultery
With non-exchange woman John says that they give one fowl (called Tsor Tsini) for Sin Medicine if the adulterer is from the same town as the husband and three one for medicine and two for the husband to keep if the adulterer is from a different town.
In the case of exchange marriage, the adulterer gives one fowl for sin medicine, 5 goats and a dog. The dog is divided up among the big people. One front leg to Tscharl, one to Tigul, a back leg to Tiket and one to Ndiel. The big people alone partake. They dance at the husband's compound.

Nor chuo = man with Chuo medicine. That is medicine that one makes when new father or mother taken to market first time.

Nov 27th Leopards
John says that in Mang there is a man who has the medicine required to cut up a leopard. In order to get the medicine one must have killed a man. This man did during a raid by the Banyo Fulani.
In a previous raid they had taken his mother. When the Fulani came again he ran into the tall grass rather ostentatiously. A Fulani rider followed him. He ran very fast and the Fulani chased him. After a while he came to a place where he had cached a spear or two. He then climbed a tree and when the Fulani man got off his horse he shot him with the spear. He then cut off an arm and xxx later he ate the arm. In the chase the Fulani once started to wheel away the horse and abandon the man, but the Mambila taunted him until he continued.

Nov 28th shoas
The festivities began about 7:00pm when the sun went down and it became dark. Archibald blew KA and Matt shouted "Chuo Chuo". Only a big man from Mang were in the compound at the time except for Archibald , Matt and I. Women were in the houses.
About 10 minutes later the drums were heard beating at Tiket and many people singing. As yet nothing new has occurred at Ndiel.
A 45 minutes later: still nothing at Ndiel. Plenty of dancing and singing at Tiket.
I waited up until midnight and absolutely nothing happended. No dancing drumming etc. A new piece of Lobal was put under the stone leading into the town of Ndiel. Yesterday the entrance in the middle of the town was decorated.

Nov 29th Lobal medicine
The medicine placed under a stone on the path leading into Ndiel so that the strangers who come will not fight. The medicine also stops birds from eating guinea corn, and also if people eat they will not have to eat very much to be filled up.
Helen told me the above. She does not know who put it there.

Nov 29th XXJim Shoa
This medicine seen in the following compounds: Clifford , Archibald , Frederick , Kim , Rodney , Gregory , Adrian .
Not seen in Finlay , Brett , Ezra s or Nathan s, Ron , Charles , Garth , Leopold , V. Zielinski .
It is made to keep witches out. Anti-witchcraft medicine is always made when a lot of strangers are expected. This leads me to believe that the tale that only kinsmen can witch one is false. Actually I think that the beliefs that any kinsman, either cognatic or affinal can witch one if he is in the same town. And any stranger living in the same compound or a neighbouring one can also witch one. Nathan put the Jim Shoa for Kim s house. If Nathan hadn't put it then Kim himself would have put it. It's strange that Nathan did not put any for himself.
Clifford made it for himself. Lance made it for Lance .

Nov 29th 10 am We went into compounds not so far, that is Nyaps, Nathan s, Archibald s, Frederick s, and Clifford . In 3 they immediately offered us corn beer. In Clifford s no one was there to offer. At Nathan s they were all busy cutting each others hair.
All people are beautifying themsleves today. Many new loin clothes in evidence. Much working and cutting of hair.
Later they gave John a cup at Nathan s. They seem to give one cup to all people who come.

Nov 29th prestations to Affinal kin.
Nyap just returned from Tigul with Kim , Langley , Neal . He had brought 4 sh and 6d worth of firewood there. About2/3 of it he gave to his wife's mother in Tigul. The rest he kept for himself.
A months supply of firewood if it needs to be purchased by a Mambila costs 5 sh.

Nov 29th Kim said that they didn't dance last night because they were too tired from carrying firewood.
They took firewood to Tigul
Nicholas 's wifes mother
Nyap's wifes mother
Wallace ya's mother (man who likes for thief)
This was the only decorated one.
They took in Ndiel
They took to
Lonnie 's ya's mother (Koltobi daughter Tatschor)
Neal 's ya's family. Gertrude
Isaac 's ya's family. Girl who lives in Ezra 's compound.
People who carried wood: Neal , Langley , Lonnie , Isaac , Wallis , Nicholas , Sean , Alkali, Roland , Eldon (Dyson 's son).

Nov 29 Kim 's loincloth
Nyap's wife died {sic} his loin cloth. He didn't pay her anything. The red wood is his the oil was the old woman who lives in his compound.

The juju is called Tatschop not Tatschor as originally written.

Nov 29 shoas
About 11.30 Delaney ambles to Archibald s medicine house and takes out Ka Chimbir and others are taken out. Tigul jujus are heard coming as they open the house. The other is Mboram and Mvir.
Langley , Neal , Thor blow them. Archibald is not near when they open the house, but he stays in his cooking house. Cuthbert is also there. Gregory , Rodney , Frederick and Adrian .
Delaney waves Non leaves to drive away the dead people from the jujus.
They went to dance placed walked round the central tree three times then went inside.
Rodney , Gregory , Thor . Cuthbert Gideon Delaney Langley blew shoas.
Archibald came shortly afterwards. Delaney lit a fire in the centre of the behind the fenced area. The strangers from Mang (one is John father, the other a big man) came in shortly after the others.
We then sat down to wait. We wait until Adrian Frederick and other big men came. Occaisonally people blow a Shoa but nothing connected. Gregory and Rodney say that they should do the medicine right away and not waste time.
Frederick arrives. Rodney follows. Brian and Jed are in and out of the area. All people except for John leave their blankets etc on the outside. A few of the men have European loin cloths, but most have Mambila ones.
Other male children too came in and out.
Abraham brings in a pot of corn beer. Rodney . Arnold from Tigul has been here all of the time. Jake from Tigul too has been here from the first.
The big men retain their cups.
Jake and Bryan go out to get a drink of corn beer.
John father left for Mang about 12:00a.m. He just came to see John .
Archibald is arguing with Adrian as he has not appeared and does not allow Rodney or Gregory to make the medicine while he is still alive. He says if he doesn't want others to make his medicine.
Finally all but Archibald , Frederick and Rodney have gone to drink. They are tired of waiting for Adrian .
Bryan bought the juju from Tigul. It was a Tschimbir. He was the only one to bring juju from Tigul.
Only a man drum is in the enclosure.
Jerry brings another pot of corn beer. This is about 40 minutes after the first bought. This is Gregory 's.
Jed brings small small pot. This Cadogan . Taylor brings a pot this Adrian 's.
Frederick sends Taylor to bring his corn beer. Taylor comes with the pot. Archibald and Frederick talking to each other, say that Adrian is bad not to let his brother make the medicine.
Delaney brings his own pot.
Abraham and other children bring woman drum.
Archibald says that Clint will make Nan medicine. He makes the statement for no apparent reason.
Joel arrives with Rodney and Cadogan who have just returned
(Both men and woman drums are simply hollowed out logs, with a skin top and solid bottom)
Adrian came in about 1 1/2 hour after the others. He says nothing to anyone. He carries a bunch of grass.
One pot of corn beer comes from Harold and from Jake .
Any man can send a pot if he so wishes.
They bring 4 cocks. They place them with leg tied until one crows. Then 2 are out in basket and taken away. Then a group came from Andreas 's compound with his jujus.
Laurie from Tigul has come.
Archibald , Adrian , Delaney assemble in a corner. They then call Thor . Before Thor comes the jujus dashed to a lot of people and they began to dance around the center of the ring. ??Even?? young boys to those of Gregory and Rodney 's age dance. Bryce from Tigul dances too. Thor comes with a pot of corn beer. Harold comes with a Yung bell. They put a few drops of all corn beer into pot Thor bought. It was really full. Delaney takes a cup of corn beer from pot holding a bit of all the contributions. He follows Archibald who leads and is followed by Adrian , Rodney , Thor , Gregory , Bateson to the place where the rock is that they made medicine over at Mba Shoa. Archibald poured a bit on it. Then all chuck a bit and poured it out in unison over the rock. While Archibald was pouring it on he said something.
Archibald puts 4 blobs of mud on 4 leaves.
Harold said that he is vexed because they took big drum to mission. He said that as it came behind fence it should not be used for European purposes.
Archibald gives all people some mud on the tongue. Then he puts it on their chests. No special order observed.
Archibald is also vexed and Adrian as well as Frederick over the drum occurrence.
In order to speed up proceedings Adrian , Thor and Archibald all give it. They only give it to kinsmen or people living in Ndiel or Tigul.
More young men come from Tigul. XXXXX and Gregory then give it.
As they give they say sick will not trouble you and that you need only eat small so that you will be full.
They dont ask permission of big people before bringing drum to mission. All of the big people are angry.
Archibald says to bring cock which occurred. But the man whose it is is not here so they say to bring the one who did not come.
They bring both cocks.
Archibald holds Guli grass. Delaney gives him beer and he spits it on the grass.
Delaney , Mackenzie , Adrian , Harold , Gregory , Rodney , Bryan , Dave , Cedric , Abraham , Lennox all drink and get the first Guli grass. They all have either Tschuck or bell medicine.
Adrian waves grass and tells cock to crow saying that good girls will come, good animals, plenty of men pickins will come, chickens will be well. This goes on for about 10 minutes. He finally says if witch is witching chicken he must die. About 1/2 minute later chicken crows. Then all shout and blows shoas very excited. Repeated second time takes shorter time. The whole thing repeated third time. This time takes a long time. They have Clifford rattle baskets with cock in them on the outside to stimulate them. It didn't work. The time passes the formula is repeated over and over. Finally a man pulls the string to which one is tied and this annoys him and he crows. Tremendous excitement. They then distribute the grass. Archibald gives some for Bel (Fence medicine) Adrian gives some for Tschuck.
Then they begin to dance with shoas. Charles , Herbert Garth and Brett Nathan not here. These are the only heads of compounds not here that are not Christian in Ndiel.
Many people dance.
They have beaten the drums with wrapped bundles of grass in the same way they do as when a man dies. They have also bought in one of the small drums that is ??usually?? to stand by itself.
Women sit on the outside, some dance.
Archibald says if man send birds to eat guinea corn he will die, Gregory rings bell.
Archibald : if some does cry witching he will die. Bell rings .
Archibald : if witch wants to make woman steal or kill children he will die. Bell rings .
Adrian says: if strangers come to steal Warwar people they will die.
Adrian says: if Warwar poison they will die.
Adrian says: all witches must die.
Adrian says: if man is sterile and wants to kill other children he will die.
Adrian says: if anyone wants to kill a big person he will die.
Adrian says: as big men tired they will ask young me n to help them. They must or they will get sick.
Adrian says: if a big person tries to witch he will die.
Adrian says if someone wants to witch one having big medicine to get it themsleves they will die.
Adrian says: if someone witching Mark he must die.
Adrian says: Some Vokude people took part of earth, that is piece of ground. They took it to their own town. If they continue to make trouble, they must die.
Adrian says: If witch witches dogs, chicken, goats, guinea corn, he will die.
Adrian says if witch makes water over flour he will die.
Allan says if anyone steals anything he must die.
Adrian repeats for palm wine.
Frederick has bell rung because he is always sick and if someone witches him he must die.
At the end of each statement Gregory touched bell to ground and rang it. The jujus blowed and drums beaten.
The Nam medicine will not have to be made as the cock crowed. This Nam medicine is to drive away the dead.
All medicine now finished. They begin to dance.
Herbert was here but I just didn't see him until the end. It ended about 4:30. Some very young boys who had not yet been introduced to Juju stood outside of the fence with the women. They would be from the age of four down.

Nov 29 Tiket shoa
We came up late. Evidently they were later even than Ndiel as they had palaver over who would do fence medicine.
Peter had the bell. Cahill , Lee , Gabriel , ??Elvyn ??/??Elwyn ??. ??Elvyn ??/??Elwyn ?? is young but has the medicine. There all in the centre.
They swore the bell about witches about stealing etc. Also they stressed if man wanted to witch Churches as they didn't make medicine, they must die.
Charles , Buchanan , Martin (Garth 's compound) Simon .
At end two Nyena nyas arrived and took 2 pots of corn beer. Lawrence sweared {sic} at but they kept the beer.
Philip and Isaiah ?? pour a full cup of corn beer into one Tschimbir, then they pass the same beer into the other three Tschimbirs. Then a spot of it onto the 6?? mvirs.
Some of the Tigul people come up after Ndiel finished.
The medicines part was finished by Nyap leading a group in old songs and dances. The difference was mainly that the tempo was much slower. The songs had no words.
The Tiket medicine finished about 5:30.
After they had finished the women outside began to dance outside, as well as the men inside. Some mounted the fairly steep incline leading up to the fence. Then three grabbed a hold of the fence and intermittently some other would try and dislodge them. Sometimes 3 or four would pull at one holding onto the fence and thus remove her. The "sister" that Johnson had exchanged was the ??sturdiest?? contender. When I first saw her she was dressed with two cloths and a machete in a case hung on her shoulder in the same way that a man wears them. In about fifteen all of her clothes had been taken off,
and her machete taken away and worn by another woman. She however fought her way back to her handhold on the fence. Though this was all in fun they were not gentle. One woman was pulled about 10 ft along the rough ground naked except for her waist strings. I was told that they were especially rough on her as she had a strong head. Johnson s widow took part in the above.
The spot where the medicine is made for Mba Shoa (the rock under which they look) was covered with corn beer at the time we arrived.
The women danced to the fence and back in long files. 9 rows of women were thus aligned.
Brent was there carrying bush cow tail

Nov 28 Shoa party.
In the evening I walked around Ndiel. People were wandering round in groups going from house to house dancing. In almost every compound that I went to some people were dancing and drinking. I visited Nathan s, Archibald s, Frederick s, Clint s, Clifford s, Jake s, Finlay s. Only in Clifford s and Finlay s was there no corn beer or dancing. In both all of the people were gone. Most of the houses that I visited had about 25 people in them ("so round, so firm, so fully packed")
John went to Tiket. Many more strangers came there than to Ndiel. Most of the strangers were related to some Warwar people. Lots of affinal kin come. They must be well supplied with corn beer and food.

Nov 29th Fence Medicine.
Strangers who have come may go behind the fence, but they dont have to. They may not have any of the Bel Guli grass nor the Tschuk Guli grass.

Nov 30th Tiket dancing.
Songs sung
"The Europeans say to stop fighting otherwise we would kill all people."
"If I meet any Vokude man I am going to flog him."
"Bevis was only chief 2 months and already they put him in jail."
"As soon as Bevis was made chief, he gave the farms to Kara chief. Soon Warwar will be under Kara."
"How can they make Bevis chief when he has no English nor no Fulani. He has no cows."
"When Bevis eats food, he must put one-half away for S. Zielinski ."
The Tscharl people were a bit annoyed. They say that "Bevis was now a big man."
They sang all the songs when Bevis was present.
Nov 30th Yip and Gir
Yip was afraid to go behind the fence as the other boys would flog him. They were angry because he didn't help them fix the fence. They made him sweep out the dance place, but that was not enough and he couldn't go behind the fence. Yip didn't admit this to be reason, but I was told so by Jed and Elias .
John says that in the past if Tscharl boys didn't help them with the fence fixing as Tiket, they would flog them if they tried to go behind the fence.
They also used to do much wrestling at this time, but the big people have made the law that they can't now.
Nov 30th Fence -taboo
Only Nyena nyas can use a knife or machete to clean behind the fence. However non-nyena nyas may pull leaves down on small branches as long as they do so with their hands.

Nov 30th Women who can see shoas.
Irene - Adrian s kin- she is dead. She saw jujus. Then had fit. She had to be caught and tied. They then showed her jujus so that she would get well (Told me by Ian ). This is the only woman Ian knows of that lived in Ndiel, that could see shoas. She could not make the medicine.

Nov 30th Woman and shoas.
Women know a great deal about Mvir, Tschimbir and Ka. They can tell you which is which from the sound, and some of them know of what they are made.
The fact of seeing a juju is what makes a woman sick, not knowing of them.
Nov 30th shoas.
Only at rare intervals did people go into the fenced area to blow the shoas and beat the drums. I was in there about a dozen times and never were more than 12 people there. Many of the times it was empty. Often only a handful of children were inside. This for Ndiel.
At Tiket. Spent about 2 hours there. Many people were behind the fence and about 50 women were dancing outside. The drum was in action most of the day (This I heard from Ndiel). At one time a man climbed high into a tree and urinated on the women outside. This is evidently customary. The women ran back and some were wetted, I believe.
Most of the day was spent by all people wandering around from house to house drinking corn beer. Many Ndiel people went to Tigul, and Tiket people to Tscharl. Of course some Ndiel people went to Tscharl or Tiket and vice versa. But mostly the dichotomy was retained.
Archibald went to Tscharl to visit his sister. Last night there was much more dancing at Tiket and Tscharl than here. John came back to Ndiel about 1:00 o'clocl. Almost everybody was asleep, so he went back to Tiket, then Tscharl and danced all of the night.
No medicine has yet been made at either Tscharl or Tigul. I think that none is made there at all during this time. Herbert made corn beer for this & Shoa.

Nov 30th Craig and Herbert .
It is immediately obvious that Craig is the leading personality of the household. The people are aware of this. They usually refer to the compound as kililieg Craig or Fara Craig , rather than using Herbert 's name.

Nov 30th Cowrie shells
John says that they used to use them for money. A man on the French side was here and gave me the word for money presently used on the French side. It is the same word that they used here and also used there for money. The word used is KALONG.

Nov 30 Joking song re Bevis
John said that the songs were sung that night both in Tiket and Tscharl. The insulting songs were led by Tiket people and the defence songs by Tscharl people, but they all joined in singing, that is Tscharl people would sing the Tiket songs in the choir and vice versa.
The same thing used to happen after Samuel s downfall. Then Tscharl sang the ??reprimanding?? songs and Tiket people the defense songs.

Nov 30th Children playing
The male children of Ndiel were playing in the dance field, most of the day. Almost all of the male children from Louis to Abraham were there (Louis has recently returned) but Yip was ignored. They were still angry with him for not helping to fix the fence.
One game that they played. One boy would hold a stick in one hand and a stone in another. He would sing that his hands were on fire and who wanted to put it out. Another would slap his hand knocking out the stick. Then the boy holding the articles would drop them and the two would wrestle.

Nov 30th John on political system
Two nights ago , John , Mervin and an Nsungli from Gembu learning bricklaying and myself were talking about the political situation.
John said that the Mambilas should agree to be all under one or at most two chiefs. (This is my idea, that I had previously discussed with him). However he said that if a chief begins to agree with another one too frequently the agreeing chief would fear that the others would think of him as a small boy. Therefore in many meetings they often disagree for the sake of disagreeing.
He also said that he didn't think that all or even a sizable number of now independent towns would agree to follow one of the towns chief.
It seems to me that it might be possible to make a chief that was independent of any specific town tie.

Dec 1st shoas
Today the Shoa were put back in their store. They danced much late afternoon. Women on outside, women on the inside. Only 4 Tscharl people came, about 19 or 20 yrs. About 6:00 Adrian led the procession carrying the shoas from the dance place. The Tscharl shoas immediately went home. The others were all brought to Archibald s compound. There theysang a bit, then Archibald put them in the st ore. Adrian collected them from the people.
Then Thor brought a pot of corn beer from Archibald 's house. Archibald made a speech thanking the people for dancing with the shoas and bringing them home. All drank. Then the shoas that belonged to Dyson left and went home accompanied by Dyson , Jervis ?? and others from there.
Adrian , Archibald , Dyson , Jarvis were the only big men behind the fence.
Brett was there today.
Dec 1st
On the town level things are divided according to big men. The order of division is usually Frederick , Adrian , Archibald , Dyson etc. or sometimes just divided Adrian and Frederick and Archibald and they further subdivide.
Dec 2nd Mba Binini
The festivities that have just held sway that is on the 29th- 30th and 1st of December are called Mba Binini. This name comes from the kind of dance that they do. That is the dance behind the fence.
Dec 2nd Nyin Shoa
??Males?? This medicine kills witches. Some people instead of making Nyin Shoa make Ndurki Shoa, which is the medicine made by scraping a small stick. Both of these are made from the same reason, that is to kill witches.
Dec 2nd. Talking whistles.
Today for the first time since the last dry season I heard these whistles. They can only be used after Mba Binini. John talked to Ian Daniels from my house, Ian being in Tiket. They heard each other very well.
Evidently they are most frequently used to abuse people. It is evidently all right to abuse someone in his presence, if you use this instrument. It is also frequently used to abuse girls. They say if girls find then they break them as they are so often used to abuse them. Girls do not as a rule use them themselves.
One would not use them to abuse a big man. John says that he might use it against Clifford Aylmer or Rudolf , but not against Frederick , Archibald etc; nor against Nyap of Tiker.
It is often used to insult uncircumcised children, the favourite insult being that they small. Evidently they are not insulted in other periods or by other means.
Dec 2nd groundnuts.
Women were today still bringing in groundnuts. Most have been bought in but still some keep trickling in.
Dec 2nd Farming practices.
John says that usually Warwar people only allow their fields to lie fallow one year. But this he says is not the case in Mbamga, Kabri, Ngubin etc. There he says they leave them for 2 years. The tin trees in this case get to be about as thick as a fist.
Dec 2nd Girls and Boys.
Girls are not nearly as well orgainised as boys. When they play together, the boys usually all support one another, but this is not the case with girls. They as a rule do not help each other if attacked by boys. Watched today a group playing a form of tag. The aim is to tap other people on the top of the head. The bigger girls often held the smaller ones so that boys could tap them. This was not the case with boys, nor did they hold any of the small boys.
Dec 2nd War times
In the past if one wanted to travel it was safe to stay in a kinsman's town, but if going by a strange town, one would get off the road and pass by the bush. I believe that previously there were more marriages between villages than nowadays, as there was more value to such marriages. The more villages in which one had kin, the safer one was, as the member of such villages would give one sanctuary. It was not only ones kinsmen, but the entire village that would help one.

Dec 3rd Nam medicine.
Archibald , his wife and one of his daughters. Suzette and Thor and Harold went about a dozen feet into the bush to the left of Rolf 's compound. There Harold gathered dry grass, and Archibald lit it with his pipe. On fire they put pot with some food in it. Then Harold waved grass over Archibald 's, his wife, Thor and the girl Suzette . Then he fed them each salt. Later they all ate the food from the pot.
Harold is the one to make the medicine. Its purpose is to stop the dead from interfering with Suzette 's fertility. The Nam medicine drives them away. They think that the dead are troubling her and that Nam will drive away the dead.
Patience , Thor 's wife, Archibald , Archibald 's wives Thor and Harold were there.

Dec 3rd language
Mervin says that a man speaking Nsungli can not understand Mambila at Warwar. Very few words are the same. The only one that can he can think of is ngwi the word for carrot. Mambilas call carrots gwiya which is not very similar.
He says that Nsungli people can learn a bit of Kaka and Warwar. John says that a Mambila cannot hear Kaka talk at all. He says that Mambilas can hear no other language but Mambila.

Dec 4th Circumcision
Today Robin circumcised two boys . Ricky in Bartholomew s compund knows how to circumcise as well as Robin .
The were silent, but not particularly frightened looking.
Each one walked by himself to the stone where they sat, just outside Robin s compound. A man from the compound held them in his arms holding their head by his arm. Robin took the penis in his hand. Pushed it back and then pulled forward the foreskin. He then cut it off. The whole operation took about 4 minutes. Neither of the boys said a word nor cried. However I heard that yesterday Gary cried.
They then got up under their own power and went and sat about 5 yards away letting the blood dry. The foreskins were casually thrown in the bush. Nothing said during the operation by operator. There was no attempt to frighten the boys before the operation. They did talk of Gary crying yesterday.
Robin says that he will get nothing for this.
Robin says that he doesn't know when Mambila learned that they do it because their big fathers do it.
He says the reason that they do it so that when one urinates it doesn't spoil the clothes.
He says that man can marry and bear children without being cirumcised. But he says he knows no such case.
The brother who came with the boys was Bertrand (Hugo s compound) and Rex (Clive 's compound) Steven (Lawrence s compound) were {sic} circumcised. Rex is not brother to the other two. The boy who comes with them got nothing.
There were two small boys who watched the operation. One small girl came in and no one paid her any heed, but she was quite small about a year and a half. They would run older girls and women off.
After sitting about a hour letting blood drip, Robin gave each of the two boys a taste of ashes, saying this will stop the blood from running. Then a banana leaf cup was tied on and they went off. The blood was still running. One of the boys didn't want to pass through compound as people might use his blood to witch him, but the others led him on.
They wore nothing over their buttocks at this time.
That afternoon they went to frighten birds. Not a single boy between 6 and 14 years at Tiket - all were chasing birds.

Dec 4th Definiteness of words.
Maku is dead people, the word used for dead. They used to say if child cried one of the dead fathers would kill him.
Tsir Bvani means bad road it is used by turntalks for hell, but had no spiritual meaning. Wa also used by interpreters but
Chachu dalli: means if you don't do bad things, you will live long long time and not die quick.

War (mxxx Barup)
Wawa, Gembu, Lemme, Gakara, Tep, Mbar, Mverup, Yambap, Ndarup.
All of these help Wawa against Vokude and Mbamga.
Mbamga, Vokude, Mbarrup, Tamnya, Mang, Nige, Kara, Tangana, Dembe, Ngul (near Mang follows near Kabri) all fought against Wawa.
Mang fought against Ngubin and Titon.

Dec 6th Nyap Tiket
Rather playfully he told, Cuthbert and Ibrahim 's wife to go fish as he was tired of eating egusi. They said that they were tired. He got a cup of water and threw it on them. Cuthbert 's wife chased him around the compound. Much laughter. Later she caught him and held him while Ibrahim 's wife poured water on him. Again much laughter.

Dec 6th Nyap Tiket
A long time ago some people from Yambap stole one of Nyap's "sisters". The big man of the family told Nyap on his deathbed to get her back. Nyap went to the people in Yambap and they were afraid that Nyap would take them to court so they gave him a small girl. The girl grew up with Nyap. Nyap offered her to John as a wife, but he wouldn't take her. So just recently she married Virgil in Lawrence 's compound. (This marriage took place after my census).
This sort of giving of persons does not prohibit marriage into the giving group.

Dec 6th Circumcision
Yesterday Abraham was cut. He did not join either in the work of building Adrian 's house, nor did he drink the corn beer. He might have if he had wished.
He went up alone.
In the afternoon he went to fields to chase away birds.

Dec 6th Adrian s housebuilding.
Almost all people of Ndiel were there. no strangers. They worked well as they built one house and a half.
At night Adrian gave 8 pots of corn beer, two to the women. Ludovick gave 2 pots.
Aylmer got big cup for working best. He was given it by Charles .

Dec 7th Tschuk Medicine (small one)
Harold was teaching Bruce how to make it. This medicine made to make people bear male children. Made for women and men too.
Adrian , Rodney , Gregory , Edwin , Harold and Ezra shared the chicken as they have the medicine also.
Clifford s and Frederick s is a bit different, so they couldn't eat it, even though the purpose of the medicine is the same.
Brett produced a chicken for the medicine to be made but paid nothing else. Actually the actions were the same as if he had made the medicine for Brett .

Dec 7th Housebuilding
Houses being built - Roland , Christy , Ezra , V. Zielinski , Charles , Garth .
New compounds
Rodney , Adrian , Edwin

Dec 7th Circumcision
All of the circumcised boys seem to end up all of the time chasing birds. They are rarely to be seen in the compounds, nor in the town. I am told that it is bad for them to be around the women too much, though it is not prohibited that they should even be with women.

Dec 7th Makal (Mbamga) or ??Floni/Honi?? (Wawa) or Mandalim (Wawa)
Makals were people who could extend themselves to great heights, about 25 ft. They appeared at dusk to frighten recalcitrant people. They were used mainly against women. Ian says if women wandered about at night, the Makal would meet them on road and frighten them.
Ian says that Tu is the medicine used to become Makal. Now they can't do it anymore, if anybody does, they will die at once. He has never seen them as they were before his time.

A man who could make fire come from his mouth. It used for ??above?? purpose. Ian saw one when he was in his house at night. More than likely a dream. A long time ago used to frighten women.
Frederick agrees with Makal and Sar, his report is same as Ian s.

Dec 7th Hills.
Frederick says that he doesn't have any. No one in his Man has any. He says only Archibald and Cadogan have them. Cadogan has rights only because Adrian allowed him the rights.
He says that his big big father had one far away but people got hurt burning it, so they didn't use it anymore.

Dec 7th Farms
Frederick says that he and his wife actually farm 10 farms.
His father used them before him.
He allows the farms to lie fallow one year.
Aylmer and Mbon work part of the same 10. Actually they do almost all of the work.
He can't take farms from his family: he says his father gave the Man number the farms. He goes on to say that his father underestimated the farms.

Dec 8th Hills
The hills behind the mission belongs to Nyap. The other side belong to ??Cyril ??. Archibald owns the South side.
Only Nyap has them in Tiket. He doesn't know why he is the only one to own it. Cahill doesn't know why either.
Nyap tells them when to burn it. He doesn't have the other big men to agree.
He gets more meat than the others.
The rats they don't give him.

Dec 8th Farms
Nyap worked 5 farms this year. He and his wife and Gelmbon work 10 all together, and work them alternate years.
His father worked them before him.
Johnson showed him him some places where no one was working and he began to work them.
Actually Nyap's father worked fewer than Nyap.
He doesn't know of a time when a man asked for more farms and was refused. He doesn't know of any man who hasn't enough farms.
There are plenty of non-used farmable lands.
They gave church teachers farms.

Dec 8th Inheritance
Johnson , Nyap, Ibrahim , Marcus , Zielinski , Lawrence , Hugo and all of the big people of the Man got some of property when his father died.
Johnson got biggest part.
Nyap got one goat but small one.
Some people get chicken, spears, shovels etc.
Johnson got goat but a big one.

Cahill got one big goat when his father died.

Dec 8th
Nyap says that some Mu Pep was a German who came here. A lot of Germans came here.
Entwistle was here and told them to bring a lot of corn and they brought it to Banyo and Ngaoundere. They were given nothing for this.
Germans flogged Ibrahim , knocked him down etc.

bNyap says he has none as does Ibrahim .
John says that he is quite sure that Nyap has some.

Previous Page | Contents | Next Page
Subject Index to fieldnotes