TSHUK, very important. He is first man to plant guinea-corn. 1st to taste new crop. No one can leave village for 4 days after guinea-corn planted. No stranger can sleep in village, cannot sell food to strangers for 4 days. No food to be taken out of village, no adultery. Tshuk man 1st to cut guinea-corn with knife. If any of these rules broken must give him a fowl. When guinea corn first cut, all people go hunting. Game brought to Tshuk man who distributes. Stomach, head and heart belong to him. He cooks them on stones belonging to Tshuk. Then tells all animals to come to village so that they can be killed. Good girls to come to village to marry. Bad girls should stay away as well as bad animals. European should come calmly. Tshukma inherits this usually this medicine from fa. He is not first to plant corn necessarily. Bartholomew is 1st Tshuk man of Warwar and plants guinea-corn first. Other important medicine are:
Bel or Jir - Guul - Nga - Ngan - Kurum - Vo - Felip - Garum - Tsimber - Mvir - Ngupsoa - Nan - Kul - Ngonum - Goltabal - Segoli (used when children cry too much, man with medicine gives them water. We saw Frederick doing it) - Ambugo - After telling bad animals to stay away, Tshuk medicine man says that European should come calmly and with no bad ideas. The horms of animals killed at ritual hunt put in medicine store. Tshuk man is first to store his guinea-corn. After this one stored, he announces that feast must be given to medicine Tshuk in order that crops be blessed. 3 days before feast men go hunting. All game caught is kept until feast day and brought to him. All heads of animals are put in basket and given to girls who are to be married outside of village to eat. Horns are taken off heads filled with beer, and given to Tshuk man to drink. He again asks that good animals come, bad stay away. Good girls come, bad stay away. And European come calmly and no fighting in village. Then they all dance at dance called Tedong.
The following have Tshuk medicine:
Bartholomew , in Tigul. Adrian in Ndiel, Clifford in Ndiel, Cecil Tiket, Charles Tiker, Harry Tscharl, Roland Ndiel.

BEL or JIR medicine

This is important medicine made in December when finished weeding corn. Series of feasts from Mbamga, Yambap, Vokude and Warwar. Each lasts 10 days. When feast reaches Vokude, medicine man says: feast to take place at Warwar next market day. Young boys gather rafia palm leaves and stalks to repair fence on dance floor. People fry cornbeer, also fry corn to make cornbeer and bring wood. Evening before feast the jujus, Ka, Mvir, and Tsimbir dance outside of field. Women confined to compounds. Then go to special place where they live. They all have separate places. The morninig of feast they come out again and go into man's part of dance floor (Bel)-Bel also means medicine - They given corn beer to drink by Bel man.
Archibald is Bel man at Ndiel: he pours corn beer into calabash. Special pot before being given to Juju, beer put into it. Only family of Ndiel can drink out of this pot. After Jujus have drunk Bel medicine men and Tshuk medicine man bring guli grass and each one joined together.
The 2 medicine men stand up. Bel man says now we start guinea-corn. It should grow well. When young boys marry they should get good girls. When hunting animals should be caught. Europeans should be good. Tshuk man repeats all this. When he finishes special horn blown. Sounds reminiscent of war are made. Young boys dance inside fence; women outside. Much drumming. Drum was brought in to area by girl before jujus came. Girl is daughter of Bel man, that is not done in Warwar. She cant be married. Dance for 3 days. Much beer drunk. Also much wrestling, most done outside in front of women to show power. Men wear only native cloth as jujus dont like European cloth. Nothing worn about waist. Before feast starts no one should copulate with anyone but his wife. After 4th day jujus go home. The Bel man starts working guinea-corn and Tshuk man follows. Bel man makes special small plot hidden in bush of guinea-corn. Then afterwards Belman shows men how to plant by holding their hands while they work.


Held in July, like Bel medicine but fenced area only entered by medicine man. Juju for Guul is called shoa. (They are some play jujus who run after people and whipped them 2 or 3 weeks before feast starts. When it comes Soaba will go to the farm and get one cup of corn. He then goes to small place where jujus are. Corn beer is brought, jujus lie on one side with medicine man. Men with no medicine lie on other side and drink beer. Then men blow trumpet and get some kind of mud. They go to medicine house called Gul which is close to where they were sitting. In hut is flat stone under which is hole by looking in hole the medicine man learns when to plant guinea-corn. He tells his by ant eggs which are inside hole. If eggs are hatched they must be quick to plant their guinea-corn. If not hatched they wait small and then start. In hut they hold a trumpet and touch mud with it. Medicine man licks off mud then joins others. Non-medicine man lick off mud. When this is finished Duyker corn {sic} is blown and Shoa comes in. Everyone makes a noise. The men then leave and to to Archibald compound. He gives people cornbeer. When this is drunk he sings wrestling songs. Then all dance and wrestle. 1st wrestler is Archibald with young men. Then they leave Archibald and to to Adrian 's then to other medicine men's houses. When houses visited jujus dance. This goes on until 3 or 4 oclock then jujus taken back to where they live. Young men now wrestle. When following big jujus no one should hit his foot on ground or fall in front of jujus. If so you must give Gul man a fowl. When feast finished all those who fell give fowl. If person has wounded head of juju he must give goat. Juju is something to put on your head, it is a god, it blesses crops. Women have jujus, never seen by men. Shoa is general term for juju. When people who had accidents bring fowl or goat men grind the cornflour. This is unusual as women usually grind.
WARWAR= Mvre; GEMBU= Tunga; VOKUDE= Gamma; MANG = Mang; TITON = Kelkep; KABRI = Ndegup; DOROFE = Djuap;


Clifford is father; Rhoda is mother; Ezra is Nam kol man; Child is a boy but still nameless.
Ezra draws woman out with grass. Sits both in chair. Gives both water to drink. Clifford is carrying leaves. Ezra takes red string. Puts it on Clifford 's neck, takes it off and puts it on wife's neck. Dips finger in small calabash. Lets Clifford blow on it and then puts on Clifford 's forehead. Does same for wife and then puts substance on baby's forehead. Gives leaf to Clifford to chew then puts leaf on Clifford 's forehead. Same for wife. Little boy then holds leaf. Rope then made by Ezra , ties it around bunch of grass, brushes ground with it. Clifford given chicken feather, then put in bunch of grass. Wife then holds grass. Ezra talks for a long time. Husband sweeps semicircle with leaves. Ezra puts water on ground. Pours water on house roof which wife catches and gives baby to drink. Little boy stands between wife and husband and drinks rest of water. Go outside of compound all. Namkil man shows Clifford how to spear animals, then shows him and wife how to use hoe. Wife is all time holding bunch of leaves. Ezra digs 2 holes with canal as described by Colin . A bone of animal put inside. Wife goes around hole twice. Grass put into hole. All but tip covered. Then he taps Clifford and with spear and taps ground. Cuts tip of grass with hoe and rubs it on forehead and belly of Clifford and wife. She offers salt. Ezra refuses first and 2nd offers as too small. 3rd time accepts and gives baby back. Small boy given baby and carries him to compound. Bearer of baby and others given cornbeer. Leaves of grass put on spear by Ezra . He sets grass on fire. Clifford holds spear with foot and wife with hands and let grass and leaves burn. Fire put out with water. Leaves untied from spear. And rubbed between palms of Ezra . Wet leaves are squeezed on head of husband, wife and baby, rubbed well into baby's head. Then rubbed on wife's forehead, temples, breasts, and knees twice by medicine man. Then 3 times on baby. Then twice on wife and once on husband. He is now given baby. Wife and husband sit on stools, grass waved over their heads by Ezra . Then passes it through each of their left hands. Ezra talks 1st really solemn moment. One piece of grass given to C . who ties it on wife's necklace and another piece on baby's necklace. Namkol man gives mouthful of bananas to Clifford . C . gives same to wife. Rest given to 3 children who are around. C . now goes to hit dog...Red string put around neck of baby.


Medicine draws out woman with Guli grass. Gave mother and baby cornbeer to drink so that child will not get fever. C .then got grass from roof backed towards the bush and threw it away, this to take bad grass away and leave good. Medicine man puts red rope around C .'s neck. C . Takes it off, puts it on wife's neck. Later she pulls it down to her waist. (Red rope taken off wife day child born, it is now being replaced)
The substance that Ezra took from calabash was Carnit oil. This was done because from birth of child to today neither parents nor baby can use this oil. This ritual permits it now to be used. It is used as cosmetic. Leaf given to Clifford to chew and at same time, Nam Kol man cuts off a bit of his hair, does this for mo. and child also. If not done hair could never be cut. Wife then knocks 2 rocks together. This symbolises grinding flour. C . Then showed how to sweep with broom. Child given water to drink from roof in order to allow him to drink rainwater. This is imitation of rain. If not done child would get fever if drank rainwater.
It is Guli grass which is put in hole and buried. Medicine man also cuts liber grass with hoe and this touched to forehead, temple and breasts of Clifford 's wife and husband. If fa. or mo. leaves baby for 1st time, they chew liber grass and rub on baby's navel so that child will not worry while they are gone. The act of giving salt to baby is to make sure that baby will fear nothing. Small boy who carries baby sings nice songs when he brings baby in so that when baby grows up he will also sing nicely. Carrier is chosen because he sings well. Weeds that were tied around spear are called "Njum Barinder" and leaves were: "Wayboli" This burnt so that juice comes out. Later rubbed on fa., mo. and baby heads so that small boils wont come out on heads. Grass given to husband who ties it around his waist and later ties on wife's necklace and baby's necklace is done so that if witch comes to steal urine or defecation of child the grass will kill them. Grass is guli grass, same as Jir grass. Bananas given to husband wife and baby because up to now they could not eat them, Clifford hits dog up until now could not do it. I was impressed by lack of solemnity during ritual except when guli grass waved over their heads. Also by lack of interest of passers by. Only 1 old man stopped for a moment. People there: participant & 3 children only.

Clifford was talking to me quite calmly, but suddenly left when called. I got the impression that it was very important that he go. A few moments later all of the members of the compound came in led by Frederick each carrying a basket of guinea-corn. They did not take regular path to compound, but small auxiliary path. Men came first then women. Children not in procession. Moment seemed solemn. Frederick got up on store house and was handed first baskets of guinea which he poured in. He seemed nervous and told me to go and take Clifford s picture. Later other men climbed on storehouse and helped him with guinea-corn. Later saw same ceremony at other compounds. This time procession led by small girl about thirteen, she was followed by men and then women. Before entering compound she took hesitant step forward, then step back, this repeated three times. This according to John is to assure that much guinea-corn comes into compound. Samuel Zielinski who was with us left, as he said being chief he could not see guinea-corn being brought in to compounds. No elderly man about directing. 2 men later three clambered up to store house to pour it in.
February 6th. Saw and helped Ian bring in his guinea-corn. All from compound helped. The aim is to bring in as much as possible all at one time and in one rush. We came through bush path. No special ritual or solemnity. Only Ian sprayed interior of granary with water which Graeme had tasted. Later he sprayed outside of granary. Before bringing the guinea-corn up to granary one stalk of guinea-corn taken out of each basket and tied in a bundle. After first bunch in storehouse women were sent to fetch the rest with no ceremonial.


When big man dies people sing songs, these are songs that are sung only at death, and not when small people die.
If wife finds husband dead she cries and all take up wail. If he has lots of clothes, his male kinsmen put these around their waists. Women put basket on their heads. People come to his compound and wail. Wail for all whether big or little. People come from long distances, affinal as well as consanguineal kin. When they come to his compound, they wail irrespective of how much time it has taken them to come. Brothers, daughters and their husband come and wail. Sons are supposed to wail the most. Men bring drums, man, woman and small. Men dance in the town women outside. Cover a portion of the compound so women don't see Jujus. Big people bring jujus. They make medicine with jujus. Hold a juju made of iron, go around hearth three times. Make medicine so that if anyone comes to cry, but also to witch, he will die. Iron jujus handled by one man and a calabash Juju by another. Blows a noise in calabash juju which is said to be juju crying, and carries it around fire three times. Drum is then hit, and begin to sing, they make circles holding hands. One man makes song in centre and others answer. The man who gives song, holds basket handle, and when he is finished gives it to next singer. Anyone can be song leader. If Ndarrup people hear funeral drum beat they come with their jujus. They call out Seachio when they arrive so that others will dance strongly when their jujus arrive. Ndarrup juju goes around fire three times, followed by Warwar jujus. Their Jujus go to store house to cry and are joined by Warwar people and jujus. Again song sung, Ndarup man takes basket handle and gives song. Son of deceased then talks and gives people food to eat. They talk about illness of deceased, and some big man says that deceased children must be taken care of, for if later they go to mother's kin it will be a disgrace, as it shows fathers kin could not take care of them.
When dance stops women can come in. They have heard all of the talk. If women are in when Juju comes they cover their eyes. Big man then says, if God sent illness alright, but if man sent illness he must die. Calabash jujus blown again and jujus knocked on ground. If anyone owes deceased money he must give it to heir and if dead owed money then creditor must announce it then so that he can be paid back. If claim made and it is not legitimate then shoas will kill you, or so medicine is made so that this will occur. Jujus knocked and calabashes blown at this point.
Women leave for ouside compound. Men begin to sing, and continue until sun goes down. Then return to their homes. People who have married deceased's daughters must stay from one to three days. They may go only to get palm wine to bring back. Corn beer made by family and neighbours. Sometimes later corn beer and sons and daughters come to distribute this property. Most goes to sons a bit to daughters. The majority goes to sons who have take care of deceased's junior children.
If man is big man then bury him under guinea-corn store, if not big bury under plantain trees. Cut banana leaves and place on top of grave also stems. Corpse is naked and grXXX before burial. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX or otherwise their children would be troubled with a cough, that is plantains to eat. Big people and friends carry and dig grave.

Ian February 17.
Tshuck medicine man eats guinea-corn first. Then the big man of each Man cooks and eats, until you get to small boys who eat last. Robert first of Ian 's family to eat it. Frederick s wife cooks it second and shares with him, then Ian , the Vivian Zielinski , then Clifford . Nyena Nyu. Graeme is Nyena Nyu to Ian . Graeme s real father was married to a member of Ian 's family long time ago. He went to Gembu and became chief. Graeme s mother came to Tiker and he later followed her. Nyena Nyu is person related through maternal ties.
Feb 19th. Fence on dance field partly blown in the storm so people today do no farm work, that is men. Women can work.

Ian Feb. 19th
One is Nyena Nyu to family not to individual. Ian 's mother was from Wakili's family, therefore Ian Nyena to Wakili but Wakili not Nyena Nyu to him. You can take eggs if you are Nyena Nyu, steal corn beer. Nyena Nyu calls the persons to whom he is Nyena Nyu Talup. You can offer things to Tallup but they should not take it. Asymmetrical joking relationship, you can take corn and guinea-corn from his field, but not he from yours. Louise a woman was married to Reginald , the big man of Ian s family, he is dead but she still alive, and she is first to eat Guinea-corn. Sarkim Barki (Adrian ) first to plant guinea-corn, first also to bring it to compound and to eat it for all of Ndiel. He does so before Louise , he does this because he practices Tschuk medicine. Clifford also does Tschuk, but only less important Tschuk. Adrian give big feast after all have gone hunting for him and brought him lots of meat. He gives big feast then corn is planted.
Rest House. Ndiel, Tiket, Tscharl, Tigul primarily responsible for Rest House. Gembu gives money to keep it in condition.


Child of any woman of your family is Nyena Nyu to you. You are Talup to them. You can only steal from Your Talup, if you don't live in same hamlet. Graeme cannot take much from Ian as he lives in same hamlet. If pot of corn beer is very full, Nyena Nyu can come to sip from the top. When you build new compound Talup can come and ask for fowl, if no fowl available they give a rat, you cannot give money. If no rat or fowl available give chicken feather, cannot give money as this a European thing. Talup then given corn beer and blow on it that is blow it on the hands of their Nyena Nyu's thereby blessing his friends, fowls, and children. Special part of blessing is to keep rats from guinea-corn.
Nyena Nyu is children of sisters both M. and F. and their children. Cannot marry Nyena Nyu. Nyena Nyu ship dies with sisters childrens children, these no longer Nyena Nyu.

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