The Fieldnotes of Professor Farnham Rehfisch



Frederick gave name to Ian s children, he is big man of Ian 's group. Father does not give name but Father's older kinsman does. If father has no older brother or other relative then he may give name. Play name given by husband to wife, Father and mother in law use girls real name. Wife does not call her husband by his real name until she bears a child. Often name of deceased grandparent given to boy, either line. Mother's father gives child another name and mother's mothers people also give him a name.

Corn. Plant corn according to the position of the moon. Wait until rain starts. Burn grass before rains. Small rains before big rains.

Colin says Jan 21. Bruno may be used for father's brother if he is acting in loco parentis. Colin says that that wife does not call her husband by name if people around, she is ashamed to do so. Husband may call wife by name.

Colin on medicines

Everyone has herbs for certain illnesses. If I am ill I first go to tarantula to discover who bewitched me. Tarantula says Colin bewitched me. My elders go to see Colin and ask why he does so. Colin says that he doesn't. My kin and Colin each take a fowl and take them to "LI" or "Mber" man. The latter gives them sasswood if his fowl dies it shows that he is a witch. He then must replace him, either a man or a woman. Mambila believe that there are many witches both male and female. Sometimes witchcraft is hereditary sometimes not. A witch steals part of a mans meat when he is asleep. Witch called dibul. A male witch is not dibuli. Mi dubul wo= I bewitch you.

Around Rest House is medicine to keep Europeans calm, called Leval.

Mambila can tell whether farm land good or not by the grass that grows there. One can come to live in Warwar if one has friends there. Usually farms given to Ego by members of his kin group. Friends also can do so. Chief only owns his own farms. When bush burned owner gets a share of animals killed. Those who have hunted all get a share. The first spearer gets two backlegs, head, lungs and heart. Second spearer gets one front leg as does third. 3rd gets neck. Fourth gets last joint of hind legs and intestines. Rest divided among all comers.

No marriage allowed during harvesting of guinea-corn. No sleeping with wife before hunting or wrestling matches by the wrestlers. Some people don't sleep with their wives when making corn beer.
Dia=copulate. Never use bad words like dia before older kin, mother or big men. It would be a shameful thing to do so. No farting before elders, sisters, mothers, father, etc.

What Colin calls age grades.

Boys of certain age usually play and work together. Ndalup means young unmarried men. Circumcision between 8 and 12. One special man does this as he has skill. Vilip means young unmarried girls.

Tasks of various Age categories.

Boys and girls 7-8. Carry water, catch fowls in the evening to put in house. Look after babies. Peel Argusi

Boys 9-14

Help parents, especially fathers in farm work, chase birds from guinea-corn. Make traps for birds and animals. Dance and wrestle together. Learn to work together. Swim. Practice throwing spears. Learn to make mats, bags.Begin to learn to oil their bodies and decorate themselves. No necklaces or bracelets worn yet.

Boys 14-18.

Much the same as above, except less trapping and playing. Really do serious wrestling, hunting. Make bags, nets for both fish and animals. Make beads and necklaces. Colin says to enter next group, but Warwar people say no. Make feasts (Kulum=corn beer feasts. Begin getting special friend (Bil). All group helps he who gets a Bil. Not all group get one. The friend drinks first cup with his friends, then the rest drink and eat fowls provided for feast. They help each other on farm and man who is helped gives beer party. No older man has active role in these groups, one older man named to see that beer and other things shared equitably, but he has no real authority. The boys begin to visit neighbouring villages looking for girls, and help each in work required by fiancee. Make pretty things for fiancées.

Boys 18--23.

Work harder. Go to markets to sell things to make money to marry. Make their own personal house and personal farms. Start to attend meetings held by older men.

John on his own marriage.

He met Theresa at Kabri. She is sister of John 's family. John says father's father's mother was related to Theresa 's mother's mother but doesn't know how.

John started school in 1942. Already knew Theresa . Had decided to marry her. Met her first in market and talked to her. When he was in school sent his mother to talk to her and her parents. John had given her mats. Next time he saw her gave her a shilling. Mother bought and gave her some mats. Every time that he met her in market gave her a jug of beer or palm wine, gave about twenty in all. He used to sell corn in market to make money. If Theresa 's father came to the market. J 's father would take him home and give him wine. J 's mother would entertain Theresa 's mother often giving her fowls. After a period of this parents agreed to marriage. MXXX sent to them. J 's sent Theresa three bracelets and necklaces. No presents returned. If John went to visit them they would cook him a fowl. When Theresa becomes bigger, John send six shilling worth of farthings and some white buttons to Theresa via his older brother. He was accompanied by many members of his group. Farthings and buttons put on long strings and tied on to chairs {sic}. They then tell Jeremy , J 's brother that when Theresa old enough they will call him. They ask Jeremy to bring, cock, spear and £2. at once. He does this. Takes bundle of firewood from John to Theresa s compound. Then Theresa s parents make medicine called Jillo and Ndurugi for Theresa , so that she will not get fever or otherwise ill. Theresa no longer goes to town but stays out in bush. They call Jeremy and he calls all of Theresa 's brothers so that they may come and lead her to John 's house. Then they all come led by John younger brother, the older cannot come as they play on the way. Only unmarried brothers can come. Leave Theresa s at night. Walk all night. Sleep in the day at a brother's house on the way. Next night reach John 's house, John is asleep. Jeremy left them and came in and woke John . John goes to salute Theresa s brothers but ignores her. Brothers of Theresa angry because he was asleep. John dashed them shillings. 11sh and 5d worth of mat bought for feast by John for Theresa s brothers and her . They ate this in his brothers house. His mother brought food. After food came to his house Theresa went to his younger brothers house. They brought 14 pots of water to wash. Used five wash, threw the rest on his brothers. John had bought palm oil which they used to rub on themselves. Palm oil cost £1. Also rubbed J 's brothers with oil in play. When play finished they called John and told him to give his wife a name, if name is good they agree, otherwise don't. Ndegna given which means young woman. All of John 's younger brothers now call him Ndegna. His father, mother and older brothers call her Ta which means my childs wife. They now gave John some food, that his group had brought to eat. John now leads her brothers away and Theresa stays in the compound. He carries one calabash of palm wine to give them on road. They sit and drink wine. They say that they will come soon. Theresa sent John 's sister Wendy to find out when they will come and they give date. They come on day promised during day time. He cooks one chicken for them, he and Theresa eat with them. By this time husband
John Marriage continued. (Learned about this towards the end of January)

When leaving they promise to bring firewood. They do six days later. John cooks them a chicken. They call him Kabri but he does not come as proper medicine not made. He hid in bushes and saw his pa in law first. Both cover eyes with their hands, Theresa 's fathers eyes covered also. Eyes must be opened very slowly, Medicine then made, they put some leaves on you neck then he left. He then stays with his wife. He cooks 20 fowls for her, both John and Theresa eat them as well as his relatives.

When buy 8 fowls and 2 calabashes of wine, his, J 's, older brother and wife go to Theresa s mother. John stayed home. They reach the place in the evening. Theresa 's father calls his brothers and tells them to take a cock and burn it in the field. After this they drink palm wine. After this they make medicine on Theresa called Chachuwe. They give Theresa one hen and one cock to bring back. Theresa and Hilaire (Richard 's son and John brother) come back. John gets meat and gives her the cock to cook for herself. This first time Theresa cooks in her husbands compound. Mother tells her to grind corn flour. She must fill one big basket. Theresa at this stage usually grinds only flour his mother does cooking and supples food. Little by little she begins to cook. She is given a small basketful of flour which she cooks for all of J 's kin. This is done first time that she cooks in the compound. John 's brothers return the basket of food that she prepared filled with money salt and meat. This she keeps for herself from now on she cooks for herself and husband.

Vocabulary relating to time.

Wil=month Tuli=night Turiten=midnight Chiaheli=dawn Luguro=evening

Tumen=January approximately. Shili=Feb, Ngu=March, Tul=April, Vurishu=May, Gua=June, Du=July, Obal=Aug., Yu=Sept., Tu=Oct., Buli=Nov. Cur=Dec. These correspondances are only approximate.

Moon is to the North during Ngu. Tumen means hand it, Shili=rest in town or compound, Ngu is period when fields cleared for corn. Gua=tree like palm tree but not the same Du=Food like Okra, Gobal=Termites that make a heap. Yu=Bitter leaf, Tu Bitter leaf shrub, Buli=Iron that is heavy, Cur=rough small calabash

Ngu also means little white fish and a medicine brought from French side which kills witches. Du is when rains fall and all is damp. Moon is South. Vurishua means send out Shoa, which is time when they dance.

Tumen-Harvest and grind guinea-corn. Medicine man must have first fruits. Shili after finished harvesting guinea-corn and before planting corn. Ngu burn off fields. When moon goes to the South fields are ready to be planted

Tul must clear new fields for guinea-corn, corn already planted.

Vulupshoa. Juju comes out and makes the medicine

Gua Plant guinea-corn to the North.

Du When Warwar plants guinea-corn.

Gobal Finish planting guinea-corn and begin to catch termites.

Yu Weeds guinea-corn

Tu Finish weeding

Buli Guinea-corn starts flowering

Cur Guinea-corn almost ready to be harvested.

Colin is of Edmund 's kin group in Tiket I think.

Colin does not eat mole nor do the members of his family. Shie=taboo and run away. His mother can eat it. 2 reasons for not eating, mole lives in the ground and makes sound as if it were eating. During Fulani war period two people of his group fled from town during raid. They were lying on a rock and caught a mole. They ran away as they thought Fulani might hear, as they were going away saw Fulani arrive. Would have been caught if not for mole, as it was they ran away, hid and were safe.

Monkey Taboo from Colin

A girl married to a young boy who already had a wife. New wife lived with husbands mother not given a house of her own. She was lazy, did not know how to cook. Mother found girl so lazy so she told girl to squeeze juice of sugar cane into soup. One day husband invited people to come and work farm. Told each of his wives to cook and bring food to field. Lazy girl cooked food and fowl the other made fine food and soup, but the lazy girl does not know how to cook well, and the mother was working in the field so could not help her. She tasted other wifes soup and found it very sweet, her own not good. She tried to make hers better putting all sorts of things in including sugar cane juice, but still not sweet. She had seen her mother in law put salt in soup, so she opened calabash and put in some salt, but it was already spoiled and also she put in too much salt. Only certain people are allowed to open one's calabash of salt as it is special. When she had finished with the calabash, she hung it up, but she found that it followed her about. When she left house calabash followed her. She smashed it up and threw it into bush. Again calabash followed her. She smashed it again and threw it in the water. Again it followed her. Other wife had gone into bush to excrete, the lazy wife sifted the nice soup into her calabash and filled the others calabash with excreta. Then she ran. When she came to the farm the salt calabash still following her. The father of the husband saw the calabash held lazy girl. The two were immediately turned into stone. This stone is called Tol Nori and is at Gembu. The rest of the people all turned into monkey and that is why we don't eat monkeys. Before that there were no monkeys. No Mambila eats monkeys that is white small gray monkey. However you can kill them and make drum heads from their skin, and sell meat to Banso and Ndu people. Some old people eat monkey as they are old already, but not all old eat.

Colin does not eat.

Toad= Takora, most Mambila don't eat

Tadpole=Vi. Colin says most Mambila don't eat, John says Colin and other all eat.

Snake=Kalabaria (a certain kind of snake). Most Mambila don't eat

Leopard=Ngui Most Mambila don't eat Dog. John says that most Mambila eat, some don't because of medicines that they have.

Horse-No Mambila eats.

Donkey-No Mambila. eats.

Certain medicines allow one to eat otherwise tabooed foods.

Colin s family don't eat cobras

European chiefs tasks

Collect tax, Decide matters concerning Europeans, see about plans for Europeans coming. Stop fighting and stealing.

European chief called Mbon, Native Chief Ngwa. Native chief has a hand in farming matters. Native chief stays in compound or goes to farm, he does not wander around, can appear at dance but only with lots of people. These restrictions apply only to chiefs month.

Of leopard, boa, cobra, cockatoo, guinea fowl, crocodile, bush cow (buffalo) caught, it is brought to the chief where it is cut up. The operator should be the son of the chief's sister (later learned that it is Nyena Nyu). The chief gets chest, intestines, heads, hoofs, and skin. (Skin of leopard sold and money divided between chief and hunters, but this is recent innovation. Was not able to learn how money divided as not yet done in Warwar.) Killer of leopard gets cockatoo feather to wear in his hair, also the killer of an enemy man has the right to wear this feather. The wings, head and feathers of guinea fowl and cockatoo kept by chief. In the case of a cobra the head and skin go to chief.

A certain month, usually about december is called Native Chief's Month. A man committing adultery during this month must pay fine to chief. When chief's month starts the first person to see moon has to make a great noise by crying Chuoo chuoo. He should hold spear, shield and cutlass in his hands, that is he should be dressed as during war times. He must run to chiefs place followed by men carrying shields. The first man to see the moon is given a fowl. Then they pretend to be fighting a war. They celebrate all of next day. The next morning chief put in the house and close up door. A special medicine man holds buffalo tail and hits chief, the chief is then confined to house and compound. Only his family should see him. He is confined until the end of the month which falls on a market day. Then big beer feast held in all of Warwar. Everyone of the hamlets brings to native chief one or more jars of corn beer. His family makes much beer. All from Warwar go to his compound. They all come with spears shields and cutlasses. Much dancing, re-joicing, pretending to go to war. Before the chief comes out of his house the holder of Ngua medicine waves leopard skin. The skin of Mbishin also waved by same man. Wife of chief was also confined. After skins waved, chief's wife comes out carrying a small iron figure representing a man. This is called Nangu. Then chief follows Nangu (John thinks that story of Nangu is correct). Then a special dance called Ngun is danced. Chief comes out dancing. Everyone present must also dance Ngun. Strangers to the village cannot see chief dance.

The animals which brought to chief are called Mba. The song sung for Ngun includes the statement that today the chief is brought out and also, Oh chief protect us from the dangerous animals.

Chief dances around the compound three times then dancing stops. He re-enters his compound. Others go on dancing and drinking. The chief then comes out of compound looking very fat, and vomits in front of all, all that he has eaten. He has separate jar of corn beer especially for him, and while he drinks all keep silent except that people clap hands. (This part about vomitting was true in the past but no more). A sisters son of chief brings him a cup then throws a drop of corn beer near the right toe of the chief. The chief touches this drop with his right index finger and touches his right toe. Then he drinks out of cup three times. During first cup, people clap slowly during second faster and during third faster still. Now finished. Now everyone drinks, dances and sings.

Next day is chiefs Sunday and more feasting.

If animals that should be brought to chief are not, killer will become ill. He must go and confess to chief who will forgive him, the killer will bring a fowl as gift to chief. When the chief takes the fowl he says "kissum" which means blessing and sickness will go away.

If fighting goes on and chief comes and waves bush cow tail the fighting must cease at once, this is true at any time. Native chief asked to bless corn and guinea-corn before planting. (This I have not heard from others) According to Colin chief waves Vurup (Africa Lily) grass over the seeds. These seeds then mixed with the rest of the familys seeds and this insures that they will all grow well.

Chief notifies whole village when he intends to burn his hillside. If he spears an animal on this occasion he is prohibited from having a share of the animal that he spears.

If you want to marry during chiefs month you must ask chief. Bring him a fowl and later give chief corn beer.

When a new native chief is appointed the shoas are asked to kill anyone who will not obey him.

Native chief has chair of his own and also Shoa of his own. If another person should sit on his chair they will become fat and tired. No one can hit another with chief's buffalo tail or they will become fat and tired, that is person hit. When old chief dies new appointee hit with tail.

Chiefs farming time is called Nyendeng. All of Warwar goes to his farm. He makes corn beer and kills fowl for them and they prepare his farms. He plants his guinea-corn before anyone else as well as his corn.

Adultery = Gwem. Gwem is to fornicate with anyone not your wife. If this is done in chiefs month man must go to chief with fowl and confess. If woman was married by exchange must give special fowl to her husband who makes SIN medicine. Actually two fowls given one for So and one for SIN medicine. Later give 5 goats and a dog. Dog is killed, all big people of Warwar eat dog. Husband gets five goats. It is on in chiefs month that you give chief a fowl, otherwise do not. If wife commits adultery either husband, wife, or children may get sick. Tarantula tells the cause. If wife is asked she must confess. If adultery committed with non-exhange wife give husband two fowls one for So and one for Sin medicine. If during chiefs month must give him one fowl also.

Incest. You cant fornicate with any sister. One family at Kabri died out, all but one man and his daughter. They slept together as it was only way to bring children into group. Nothing seems to have happened as a result, they did not suffer anything.

You cannot marry anyone to whom you believe yourself to be related.

No exchange marriage since government made rule prohibiting it.

If incest committed must bring fowls to make medicine, but you will nevertheless be hated by your family as you will bring misfortune.

Colin talking.

Warwar has agreement with Vokude. These agreements made all over Mambila country. The agreement made with Vokude during wartime. Formerly warred much, Warwar and Vokude. A man from Vokude came to Warwar, came secretly and found a friend that he had here. He took a risk as he might have been killed by Warwar people. The two discussed how peace could be made between two villages. They decided to try and get their respective friends to make peace. They arranged for the big people to meet on the road between the two towns. Calabash of palm wine brought. Filled first cup. A big man from Warwar and one from Vokude cut themselves and put their blood in the cup along with elephant grass, and Ngana and gur. Big women from the two towns also there. The big people drank of the wine, blood and grasses. The plants Ngara and gur wrapped around womens neck. A few days later Vokude people came to Warwar, beat a goat to death, cooked it and ate it. Warwar people did the same in Vokude. These goats eaten only by families of persons who drank blood. This means that these families must never fight. If by any chance fight breaks out and blood drawn, people will get sick unless goat brought and beaten to death. Those families that didnt drink blood can fight safely, but blood brothers should try and stop them from doing so. Blood brothers families cannot intermarry as they are brothers One cannot cut bananas or other trees in each others presence. The two groups of blood brothers planted tree over the shaft of a spear at the time of the agreement, to show that there would be no more war.

Dance observed January 22.

Started in full swing about midnight and lasted until 8:00 A.M. They say that corn beer gives them power. No European goods in sight except for strings of pennies on waistband of young men and on rattles of girls. Girls and men danced together in a circle. John says that all good songs come from Gembu. Drums and rattles are instruments.

What I had planned to ask Colin about.

Kum gong or Yung, which a type of ordeal

Ngubsho - a sort of charm with chickens head.

Festival Kati (at sowing of corn)

Gevur something to do with ripening of maize. John doesnt know

Kip harvest time by both sexes, Nyoti is special for women. John says that did not do it this year.

Nyingwan (Harvest thanksgiving when crops gathered. John doesn't know)

Kundu (burial feast.) Don't do it in Warwar in other places ten days after death.

Some "clans" claim a woman ancestor some don't.

Goat flesh tabooed by some families

Nama is among some groups religious society of elders.

Tsok and Jeng hunting rites

Ngubshoa put up by person accused of witchcraft as prophylactic charm.

Ian says

:Yong so called Yung in Warwar. Ngub Shoa is medicine. Kati is Fulani talk. Kassala means very big people in Fulani language. Natali=elders. Makar=old and infirm. Ron is one of the rain makers in Warwar. If you have people coming to your farm to work you give the rain maker a spear, he goes to bush with it cuts certain type of grass, add native salt, lights fire with grass puts salt on it and tells rain to go away. Ron learned how to do this from his father. He is paid by being given corn beer.

Frederick has Yung gong. Ron can take lightning out of the ground using water and grass.

Colin says that there are people who can make rain come as well as go away.

Both men and women make corn beer. Men and women keep money separately. Women may sell beer to their husbands. Trade is main source of income. Men make cloth and sell guinea surplus. Women sell baskets and bags and sell surplus guinea-corn.

Colin says:


Njam njami=urinate. Penny=Koba Shilling=Shul pound=wul

Karkil is name of Mission area.

Mvre is Warwar in Mambila talk

Colin says about fenced off area. Must know enough not to talk to women, before boy allowed to go behind fence, he is about ten. Medicine man shows boys secrets at this age Not necessary for boy to be circumcised before going behind fence. Circumcision done about December. Boys newly circumcised must dive into cold river as helps heal wounds. Kimbing cannot be eaten by Warwar people, others eat. Vokude cannot eat either. First person to spear Kimbing, his mother will die or another member of his family. Nothing can be done about it. Mang people eat it.


Names of chiefs given by Colin .

Obidiah , S. Zielinski , Theobald (Colin s brother), Seamus , Tom , Rudolf , Denis

Seamus related through a woman to Obidiah . Obidiah chosen because his father was real chief. When his father died he was very young so they gave to someone else during interregnum. TXXX know that he is calm and good man so now give to him.

Denis is first chief. Obidiah and Rathbone sons of Denis . European chiefs work: When Europeans come he brings them eggs, chickens, corn flour and takes care of barracks. Mends bridges and clears road. Collects taxes. Maintains peace. Sees to it that no one cheats another person. Watches out for thieves. Helps collect debts.

He can give strangers land but only his own, has no claim on village land.

Wakili is Assistant chief. Foster is Wakili, his brother was headman, Kassala chosen by elders, as is Wakili.

Foster chosen as speaks Fulani, Foster was helping his father when latter was old. I think that they say Foster s father was Wakili.

Tax is at present ten shillings.


Is done when boy about 10 year old. At about end of December as cold helps heal. Before going to circumcision boy must not eat in the morning. You are taken by a man member of the family. When circumciser is ready men hold your legs so that you cant shake. Foreskin cut by special knife. Special hole dug and skin and blood put in. Leaves of palm tree made in the form of a funnel and used to cover penis. No cloth used at this time. No European salt permitted. Must get first share of food, and cannot share it with anyone. No one can sit on his chair or bed. Cannot eat meat with fat. Mo. and fa. give the boy a fowl when he returns to compound. This is not for medicine but for gladness. For 2 or 3 weeks until wound heal every morning but go to cold water in river. Women must not see your penis. After healing fa. makes little feast with chicken. Once healed must copulate with little girl. If this is not done penis will not be active. Robin and Ronald do it in Warwar. When you go to be circumcised paternal relatives must go with you. You are circumcised in village where your fa. was. No payment made to circumciser but boy should give him mice when hunting to eat. During circumcision only the boys and their brothers there. Do 5 or 10 at one time. Others do not see. To show that you are brave you must not cry, otherwise friends say you are a coward and brothers will beat you. Boys to be circumcised together, may come from different hamlets. You cannot visit while wound healing. Feast after healing only for immediate family. You should go out of the village to find girls with whom to copulate and you dont use girls again until you are mature. If you have intercourse with fiancee before she is mature you must give her up.

Between the age of 14 and 18 you choose a girl. She is about 3 or 4 years younger


Only a few families in Vokude have blood brotherhood with some Warwar families. Vokude people not married by Frederick family as he has blood brotherhood.


When a girl taken to husband she can no longer drink hot water or hot cornbeer. If she does baby will be washed away. When she first becomes pregnant she is given Nga. She feels biting in stomach. Then Chia medicine made so that the breasts give milk. When she is pregnant husband must not permit adultery nor must women misbehave. Husband and wife must continue to copulate until about 2 months before birth. Then must use coitus interruptus otherwise sperm will block eyes, ears, nose, mouth and other orifices of child. When baby born hot water and gruel given to mother. Fa. with first child must not eat cooked food until string off navel. Mother can only eat cassava, groundnuts, raw corn, no cooked food until navel is off. This fasting begins day after birth. Placenta is buried the day fast begins. No relative will farm on this day; if they did it would kill child. No man present at birth. Mo. of girl comes usually after birth, unless there is trouble. The navel falls off after 6 days, until this time mo. and child are confined to house. Fa. must not cut with knife or work hard. Cannot cross a stream or go to water. Day of delivery before placenta is buried Nam Kol man is called; puts spear into roof with medicine leaves, made of Kur Liber to all grasses which are tied together by Nam Kol man. Some of these given to husband and worn under his armpit. Whenever he meets strangers he takes a bit of To leaf and bites it before he spits, carries until navel string falls. When it falls Nam Kol man called. Comes to door of house lays down spear with grass on tip. Scratches door with spear head and asks whether its female or male child. Mo. answers which it is. He goes into house brings house mo. who is carrying child in her hands and basket on her back in which is hoe. Fa is out with cutlass and spear. Medicine man asks wife whether she has seen sun. While going out he calls hawks, tells them there is new baby. Reason for this is so that hawks wont frighten child if hawk cries out they put earth on forehead of baby. They then go along path until gate reached. Medicine man pretends animal is coming and shows fa. how to throw spear. This breaks the taboo on his hunting. Woman told to bring out hoe which she does, and Nam Kol man shows her how to use it. Then a liber plant is cut by the Nam Kol man to protect child against witches. 2 small holes then dug; linked by canal; beer put in top hole and allowed to flow to lower one. Mo. and fa. drink beer in lower one. Some drops put on child forehead. Then liber put into trench and the holes in trench is covered for ever and stamped on. Meaning of this is to protect parents and child against those who have permitted adultery. When meeting such people now conversation is possible. Previously prohibited. Also adulterers can now hold child.

If child is male, then older male child carries it back to house singing. If child female, then girl carries back singing. People in compound answer singing. Boy carries child goes to house door and pulls a bit of grass from roof. This makes the child do active work and good hunter. Then anyone who wants to carry baby must be given Jur leaves at same time to carry.

After a few days mo. led to market by Chuo man when they reach the bush in market place he leaves her around it 3 times. Chuo man must have killed a bush cow or a man. After circling bush 3 times, he bites leaves and tells wife and husband they can now speak to him-self. Husband also has been around bush 3 times with wife with Chuo man. Later Tshuk medicine made. A relative from her family who has Tshuk comes with Guri grass and Tshuk leaves. He lays leaves outside the compound. Big feast going on inside. When he comes he calls for father. He comes with spear, jug of cornbeer and a fowl. This shows he is paying for Tshuk medicine. 2 tiny branches tied at both sides of gate and leaves laid across gate. Medicine man spits beer where he has tied branches. Medicine man then blesses mo. saying that she should deliver male children. Then cornbeer given to Tshuk man by fa. Many of her family come to feast. Bring firewood and palmoil. But fa. pays heavily for this. The day the child is born a fibrous thread tied around mo. and fa. and child necks by medicine man. When unbilical cord falls off mo. and fa. Thread put around child neck.

After Tshuk feast is over a medicine man from husband family and one from wife family have Shoa leaves ready with a chicken. They tie these together with head of chicken. One of them makes a speech. Says if anyone from fa. or mo's family tries to bewitch the child or parents he should be killed by shoas. They then cut the leaves and bury them. Light fire over them and then stamp it out. This means if witch is there he will be buried and fire put on top of him.

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